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Reverse circulation of blood in the heart due to defective functioning of the valves.
Bringing back into the mouth undigested food from the stomach.


(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Many of the early materialization mediums were accused of fraud, with the explanation that the ectoplasm that they produced was, in fact, physical material that they had swallowed and then regurgitated. This theory was first propounded in 1922 by the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) in the case of Eva C.. The medium Eva Carriere was visiting London and being investigated by the SPR. Professor Charles Richet said, “They [the SPR] admit that the only possible trickery is regurgitation. But what is meant by that? How can masses of mobile substance, organized as hands, faces, and drawings, be made to emerge from the oesophagus or the stomach? … How, when the medium’s hands are tied and held, could papers be unfolded, put away and made to pass through a veil?"

At a séance on November 26, 1913, conducted by Baron von Schrenck-Notzing, a strong emetic was given to Eva to answer the charge that the ectoplasm was actually regurgitated material. It satisfied the researchers that she had swallowed nothing. A number of experiments took place at Dr. Gustav Geley’s laboratories in 1917 and 1918. Nearly 150 scientists and others witnessed the sittings.

To state that the medium had “obviously regurgitated material” became a typical dismissal of a medium’s performance by a researcher either too lazy to fully investigate or too skeptical to accept what was being proven before his eyes. However, there certainly were fraudulent mediums who did swallow cheesecloth and similar material and attempt to regurgitate it to create an ectoplasmic effect. One such was Helen Duncan, who was examined by the National Laboratory of Psychical Research. Following this, the Morning Post of July 14, 1931, carried an article claiming that Duncan had been caught out and exposed as a fraud. Researcher Harry Price called her “one of the cleverest frauds in the history of Spiritualism.” It transpired that the “ectoplasm” was in fact a composition of wood pulp and egg white, which she was able to swallow and then regurgitate. On July 17, the Light carried a followup article also branding her as a fraud and carrying a confession from her husband.


Fodor, Nandor: Encyclopedia of Psychic Science. London: Arthurs Press, 1933
The International Survivalist Society:
Psychic News, #3754, June 19, 2004. Stansted, Essex
Leonard, Sue (ed): Quest For the Unknown—Life Beyond Death. Pleasantville: Reader’s Digest, 1992
References in periodicals archive ?
The present study was embraced to compare the outcomes of peri-membranous ventricular septal defects (VSD) closure with and without tricuspid valve detachment (TVD) in terms of residual VSD's, postoperative heart blocks, tricuspid regurgitation and operative time.
Mitralign is the valve repair company offering a direct transcatheter annuloplasty system designed to treat both functional mitral regurgitation and tricuspid regurgitation.
In our case, the foetus showed early signs suggestive of cardiac compromise such as high umbilical artery PI with decreased diastolic component, initial cardiomegally and tricuspid regurgitation.
A transthoracic echocardiogram was done which showed biatrial dilatation, right ventricular dilatation, slightly decreased left ventricular systolic function, severe aortic regurgitation, a possible bicuspid aortic valve with vegetation, an enlarged aortic root, severe tricuspid regurgitation with moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension, tricuspid valve vegetation, a possible non coronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm with perforation to the right atrium and severe coarctation at the aortic isthmus with a maximum peak gradient of 77 mmHg (Figure 1).
Compared with an age-matched control group from the Framingham Heart Study, the pergolide-treated patients had a roughly 3-fold increased risk of nonphysiologic regurgitation at the aortic, tricuspid, and mitral valve sites, and an 18-fold increased risk of clinically significant tricuspid regurgitation.
There was one late death of a patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome 3 months post surgery because of progressive tricuspid regurgitation and congestive heart failure.
Tricuspid dilation is a progressive disease that eventually leads to severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR), which occurs when the tricuspid valve leaflets do not close properly, allowing blood to flow opposite of the intended direction.
After BPV, TTE was performed during hospitalization to assess the pressure gradient, valve opening, pulmonary and tricuspid regurgitation, and other morphological changes.
41%]) followed by tricuspid regurgitation (TR) (595 [44.
Multiple pulmonary emboli may result in right-sided chamber dilatation, right heart failure, and a worsening of tricuspid regurgitation.