Trigeminal Nerve

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Related to Trigeminal Nerve: Cranial nerves, trigeminal neuralgia

trigeminal nerve

[trī′jem·ə·nəl ′nərv]
The fifth cranial nerve in vertebrates; either of a pair of composite nerves rising from the side of the medulla, and with three great branches: the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular nerves.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Trigeminal Nerve


the fifth pair of cranial nerves. It contains sensory, motor, and autonomic fibers.

The nuclei of the trigeminal nerve are located in the brain stem. The fibers of the trigeminal nerve that constitute the larger, or posterior, root pass from the brain stem to the apex of the temporal bone, where the trigeminal ganglion is located. Three branches depart from the trigeminal ganglion, as follows. The ophthalmic (sensory) nerve leaves the skull through the superior orbital fissure and innervates the upper eyelids, the conjunctiva, the skin of the forehead, and the anterior part of the scalp. The superior maxillary (sensory) nerve leaves the skull through the foramen rotundum, enters the pterygopalatine fossa, and innervates the skin of the lower lid, the cheek and nose, the mucosa of the nasal cavity, and the upper jaw. The inferior maxillary nerve (which is joined to the smaller, or anterior, root of the trigeminal nerve, containing the motor fibers) leaves the skull through the foramen ovale and innervates the skin of the lower part of the face, the mucosa of the cheeks and tongue, the lower jaw, and the muscles of mastication.

The trigeminal nerve takes part in many reflexes, including the corneal and mandibular (jaw) reflex. The most common disease of the trigeminal nerve is neuralgia, manifested by attacks of acute pain in the zone of innervation. Other diseases of the trigeminal nerve, including neuritis and infection with the virus of herpes zoster, are accompanied by sensory and motor disturbances in the zone of innervation.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
To assess anatomical characteristics and patterns of neurovascular compression, brain gray matter volume and cortical thickness (CT) and diffusion imaging (diffusion tensor images) to assess brain white matter and trigeminal nerve microstructure structural MRI for TN uses high-resolution anatomical imaging (variations of T1and T2-weighted images) (29).
The mental nerve is one of two terminal branches of the inferior alveolar nerve, which is rooted in the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. It supplies the skin of the chin, as well as the skin and mucous membranes of the lower lip.
Gasserian ganglion nerve block was performed to treat the first branch neuralgia of the trigeminal nerve in the right at the point which is 2.5 cm lateral to the right angle of the mouth, following a straight line directed toward the pupil.
Bao, "Sphenoid sinus mucocele presenting with oculomotor nerve palsy and affecting the functions of trigeminal nerve: A case report," International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, vol.
Imaging the trigeminal nerve. Eur J Radiol 2010;74(2):323-340
It is often associated with capillary or cavernous hemangiomas affecting primarily but not limited to cutaneous distributions of the trigeminal nerve and rarely venous malformations involving leptomeninges that lead to progressive destruction of the adjunct cerebral cortex.
The trigeminal nerve, the main one to the face and nose, lies alongside the optic nerve which sends visual information from the eye to the brain.
It is a branch of ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve. The horn fracture occurs usually as a result of trauma due to fighting with other animals, automobile accident or falling leading (Tyagi et al., 2015) to frontal sinusitis or maggot infestation, if treatment is not undertaken timely.
Trigeminal nerve and upper cervical segments (C1-C3) are included in pain control of the head region and often evaluated in headache studies in order to improve differential diagnosis and headache treatment.
Among a number of management options present for facial pain, intervention at the branches of the trigeminal nerve has been proved to be clinically useful [1, 2].