Eichler)--are also known from these floras (DeVore et al., 2005).
The water-conducting cells are probably tracheids and the architecture of the xylem in general is similar to that of the extant family Trochodendraceae
The families of extratropical origin that spread throughout the temperate and cold temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere included the Betulaceae, Platanaceae, and Trochodendraceae
. Other families had a tropical and temperate distribution in the Southern Hemisphere, such as the Myrtaceae, Winteraceae, and Proteaceae.
The same behavior is also present, e.g., in Siparuna (Siparunaceae; Endress, 1980), Achlys (Berberidaceae; Endress, 1989), Trochodendron (Trochodendraceae; Endress, 1986a), and Batis (Bataceae; Ronse De Craene, 2005).
Either the abaxial side of the young flower is delayed (in Eupteleaceae, Ranuneulales) or the adaxial side (in Achlys of Berberidaceae, Ranunculales, and in Trochodendron of Trochodendraceae, Troehodendrales) (see above).
The upper altitudes between 3,281 ft (1,000 m) and 5,577 ft (1,700 m) (a total area of about 30,300 acres [12,250 ha]) are covered with mixed coniferous forests of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese hemlock (Tsuga sieboldii), and broadleaf trees, such as yamaguruna (Trochodendron aralioides), the only member of the family Trochodendraceae
. The evergreen broadleaf forests of Yaku Island occur at the lower elevations, are among the largest in Japan, and are considered of global importance.
The primary xylem in Winteraceae and Trochodendraceae
is evidently vesselless, also (Carlquist, 2009).
New diversity among the Trochodendraceae
from the Early Eocene McAbee and Early/Middle Epocene One Mile Creek floras, Okanogan Highlands of British Columbia, Canada.
Gray Tetracentraceae Tetracentron 10f, 11B TETR Trochodendraceae
29 Apr 1996.--Type: Trochodendron Zucc.; Trochodendraceae
alticola to be related to the vesselless families Winteraceae or Trochodendraceae
. Swamy (1953) dismissed this notion but gave no alternative suggestion for its affinity.
This problem is also present in some more basal eudicots, such as Ranunculales (Endress, 1995), Trochodendraceae
(Endress, 1986), Buxaceae (von Balthazar & Endress, 2002), and Myrothamnaceae (Jager Zurn, 1966).