Trophoblast

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Related to Trophoblasts: cytotrophoblast, trophoblast layer

trophoblast

[′träf·ə‚blast]
(embryology)
A layer of ectodermal epithelium covering the outer surface of the chorion and chorionic villi of many mammals.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Trophoblast

 

the exterior layer of cells in the embryos of mammals. The trophoblast is isolated in the blastocyst stage and makes possible contact between the embryo and the mother’s system by allowing nutrients to pass from the mother to the embryo. The part of the trophoblast located above the embryonic shield is called Rauber’s layer. The trophoblast that is lined internally with mesenchymal cells is called the chorion. The trophoblast plays a role in the implantation of the embryo in the uterine wall and the formation of the placenta.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The isolated trophoblastic cells showed faster growth pattern in primary culture on PGCs, in one-week colony diameter measured 7.0 [+ or -] 0.3 mm, compared to those cultured on MEFs; colonies grew to 5.7 [+ or -] 0.4 mm (P < 0.05; Figures 2(a) and 2(b)), whereas, on subsequent cultures (2nd-10th) the difference in colony morphology, although it was visually larger when trophoblasts were cultured on PGCs compared to MEFs, did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05;Figures 2(c), 2(d), 2(e), and 2(f)).
Normal trophoblasts include cytotrophoblasts, syncytiotrophoblasts, and intermediate trophoblasts.
Biopsy specimens were classified as "normal histology" if the histological features of the normal human placental bed (endovascular trophoblast invasion in decidual and myometrial segment, normal spiral artery appearance) were documented or "abnormal placental histology" if there were inadequate response to placentation, acute atherosis, increased extravillous trophoblasts, and thrombosis or luminal obliteration of spiral arteries.
Curettage specimen of an early gestation may contain aggregates of highly proliferative mononuclear intermediate trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts, without the presence of chorionic villi, thus simulating choriocarcinoma.
HTR-8/SVneo cells, which was derived from human invasive extravillous trophoblast cells.
Adiponectin system expression was confirmed also in the porcine and human trophoblasts [16,98,99].
We can therefore say that the shedding of trophoblast debris from the placenta could lead to the downregulation of the NKG2D receptor [26].
Hence, we have employed DNA microarray techniques to identify differential gene expression in placental trophoblasts in response to E.
Rezk, "Expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in human trophoblasts of normal and preeclamptic placentas," International Journal of Health Sciences, vol.