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an urban-type settlement in Firovo Raion, Kalinin Oblast, RSFSR. Trud is located 9 km from the Batalino railroad station on the Bologoe-Soblago line. The settlement has a glassworks.
(Labor), a central, general political newspaper and the organ of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions. Published in Moscow since Feb. 19, 1921, the newspaper comes out six times a week.
Trud covers such topics as the socialist competition to fulfill national economic plans, the struggle for scientific and technological progress, and the improvement of efficiency in social production. It carries articles on the efforts of the trade union organizations to increase the activeness of the masses in the political arena and the workplace, on the participation of the working people in management, and on problems of mass cultural and educational work. The newspaper devotes particular attention to labor protection, the improvement of working people’s living conditions, and the struggle for the strict observance of labor laws. Trud reflects both the Leninist foreign policy of the CPSU and the Soviet state and Soviet public opinion on international questions. It spreads the ideas of internationalism and of the unity of the international working-class and trade union movement. The newspaper has correspondents in all major foreign countries.
Trud was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor in 1951 and the Order of Lenin in 1971. Circulation, 8.3 million (1975). The newspaper is printed in 43 cities from matrices delivered from Moscow.
a volunteer sports society of trade unions of the RSFSR; one of the largest such societies in the USSR. Trud organizes and conducts health and sports activities for workers and students and for associated trade unions of workers in various fields, including machine building, electrical engineering, metallurgy, petroleum, gas, and chemical industries, lumbering, woodworking, coal mining, construction, and the production of textiles, consumer goods, and paper.
Trud was based on physical-culture clubs that were organized during the early 20th century at the Guzhon enterprises and Trekhgornaia Manufaktura in Moscow, the Iakhroma Spinning and Weaving Factory, the Orekhovo-Zuevo Cotton Textile Factory, and other enterprises. The All-Russian Volunteer Sports Society was founded in 1957 as a result of the merger of departmental trade union sports societies, including Avangard, Kras-noe Znamia, Stroitel’, and Torpedo.
In 1975, Trud had 8,719 physical-culture groups, including 107 sports clubs at industrial enterprises, construction sites, and secondary educational institutions, encompassing 4.9 million persons. More than 500,000 amateur instructors and coaches and approximately 320,000 officials took part in physical-culture and sports activities sponsored by the society.
In 1975, training and competition in 49 sports were offered by Trud. The society maintains 726 stadiums, 2,300 gymnasiums, 136 indoor swimming pools, 2,800 soccer fields, 3,700 health and sports camps, several hunting and fishing lodges, and 2,000 ski areas. It maintains 472 sports schools for children and adolescents, with 121,900 students; the largest of these schools is held in Moscow at the Young Pioneers’ Stadium. It also has 77 specialized schools, with 19 divisions of advanced training in the Olympic sports; these schools have an enrollment of 19,800.
During the period 1972–75, 2,800 masters of sport and international-class masters of sport were trained, as well as approximately 5 million officially rated athletes.
Trud skiers have won the USSR championships and the USSR Cup several times. The Torpedo soccer team (Moscow) has won the USSR Cup five times. The Luch women’s team (Moscow) has won the USSR handball championship three times. The following Trud teams belong to the Higher Ice Hockey League; Khimik (Voskresensk, Moscow Oblast), Torpedo (Gorky), and Traktor (Cheliabinsk).
The society’s athletes have won gold medals at the Olympic Games 43 times, at world championships 91 times, at the European championships 161 times, and at the USSR championships 790 times.
Trud athletes who have been champions and prizewinners at the Olympic Games, the world championships, and the USSR championships include M. M. Botvinnik (chess); V. I. Alekseev, R. V. Pliukfel’der, D. A. Rigert, A. N. Voronin, and N. A. Ko-lesnikov (weight lifting); G. A. Kulakova, N. V. Baldycheva, A. S. Oliunina, L. A. Mukhacheva, and E. P. Beliaev (speed skiing); I. S. Iarygin and V. S. Iumin (wrestling); S. A. Chetveru-khin, V. N. Kovalev, I. V. Moiseeva, and A. O. Minenkov (figure skating); I. V. Kalinina (diving); Iu. S. Tiukalov and L. I. Pinaeva (rowing); V. S. Stenina, B. A. Stenin, G. A. Stepansk-aia, and N. A. Statkevich (speed skating); G. Saikhudzhin (bicycle racing); L. I. Samotesova and A. S. Spiridonov (track and field); V. V. Ushakov (water polo); V. S. Konovalenko (ice hockey); and V. K. Ivanov (soccer).
More than 100 of the society’s athletes have won government awards for their sports achievements.
Z. A. FEDORENKO