Popular Socialists

(redirected from Trudoviks)
Also found in: Wikipedia.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Popular Socialists


(Narodnye Sotsialisty), a petit bourgeois party in Russia (also known as the Trudovik Popular Socialist Party).

In 1906 the Popular Socialist Party was formed from the right wing of the Socialist Revolutionary Party. The leaders of the Popular Socialists included N. F. Annenskii, V. A. Miakotin, A. V. Peshekhonov, V. G. Bogoraz, S. Ia. Elpat’evskii, and V. I. Semevskii. The official party organ was the journal Narodno-sotsialisticheskoe obozrenie (Popular Socialist Review; 1906–07).

The program of the Popular Socialists changed the “Socialist Revolutionary program from a revolutionary into an opportunist, petit bourgeois, and legal” program (V. I. Lenin, Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 14, p. 44). It declared that “the entirety of state power must belong to the people”; it understood “the people” to mean all working people, from proletarians to bourgeois intelligentsia. Although the program demanded the transfer of land from landlords to peasants, it provided for redemption payments. It demanded that all land be nationalized but did not touch upon the system of allotment land ownership (see) and privately owned land that was being worked.

In the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905–07, the Popular Socialists shared the political views of the Constitutional Democrats (Cadets). The first conference of the Popular Socialists was held from Apr 16 to Apr. 20, 1907. After the coup d’etat of June 3, 1907 (which involved the arrest of the Social Democratic faction of the Duma, the dissolution of the Duma itself, and the alteration of the electoral law), the party did not have a broad popular base and for all intents and purposes ceased to exist.

The events of the February Revolution of 1917 revived the party’s various organizations. At the first congress of the party, which lasted from June 17 to June 23 (June 30 to July 6), 1917, the Popular Socialists united with the Trudoviki (members of the Toilers group of deputies in the Duma) and elected a central committee. The committee included Peshekhonov, Miakotin, A. D. Dem’ianov, S. P. Mel’gunov, and M. E. Berezin. The official party organ was the newspaper Narodnoe slovo (The People’s Word). The party program adopted by the congress attested to the transformation of the Popular Socialists into ardent defenders of the kulaks, demonstrated the party leaders’ complete support of the bourgeois Provisional Government, and revealed that many party members had become open enemies of socialist revolution. After the October Revolution of 1917, the Popular Socialists participated in counterrevolutionary organizations and plots. In 1918 the party ceased to exist.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Petersburg province, produced a more partisan work that praised his party for its stabilizing influence between the extremes of government and the Trudovik Group (hereafter Trudoviks).
The same is true of other political bodies, especially the radical peasant-based Trudoviks. Trudovik intellectuals penned substantial monographs that made no claim to objectivity (the authors admitted their closeness to events and partisan outlooks), but which could equally not be dismissed for being purely factional.
It is largely a forum in which the Kadets and the Trudoviks contested ownership of the Duma's history, both between and within themselves.
(13) The construction of a discourse in which the Duma was presented as the bearer of the people's will, of its hopes and of its grief, and of its "moral authority," started with the claim that the Duma deputies had a close if not unbreakable link with the narod first established in the electoral process, even if Kadets and Trudoviks disputed who had emerged the winner.
The Trudoviks were formed in the days immediately preceding the Duma's opening, on the initiative of deputies from Saratov province A.F.
Once the notion that the Duma's fundamental divisions were around party and group loyalties had become cemented, contemporaries disputed which of the factions held sway, the main contenders being the Kadets and the Trudoviks.
Within the liberal camp there was a strong divide drawn between the Kadets and Trudoviks. The Kadets, it was claimed, remained a constitutional party, seeking to change Russia through legal means, the framing and making of laws.
For liberal writers, the Trudoviks were the absolute inverse of the Kadets.
Divided in their essence, the Kadets and Trudoviks, it was pointed out, also had fundamental differences over tactics.
For Kadet analysts, however, the Trudoviks' chief weakness followed on from their strength: they did not appreciate that deeds would count, not words.
The Kadets and Trudoviks were thus on a Kadet reading about as far apart as one could imagine regarding a comprehension of the Duma and its role and functions.
Trudovik authors accepted the distinction between a "group" and a "party" and that the Kadets counted as a party and the Trudoviks as a group.