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an all-union volunteer sports society consisting of students and employees of vocational-technical educational institutions. Trudovye Rezervy was created in 1943 as part of the Main Administration of Labor Reserves under the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR. Since 1959 it has been an independent sports society. In conjunction with organizations of vocational-technical education, Trudovye Rezervy offers courses in physical education as part of the curriculum and extensive training in physical culture and sports.
In 1975, 5,538 physical-culture groups at educational institutions had a total enrollment of more than 2.7 million and 9,700 coaches, supervisors, and physical-education instructors. Four physical-culture and sports technicums operate within the system of vocational-technical education. Forty-four sports were offered, the most popular being track and field, boxing, wrestling, rowing, skiing, shooting, soccer, basketball, and volleyball.
Trudovye Rezervy has 18,000 sports facilities, including 39 stadiums, 50 swimming pools, and more than 3,000 gymnasiums. From 1943 to 1975 the organization trained 16.4 million badge-holders of the Ready for Labor and Defense of the USSR (GTO), 19.8 million officially rated athletes, 107 international-class Masters of Sport, and approximately 4,000 Masters of Sport of the USSR. In 1975, 83.7 percent of the graduates of vocational-technical educational institutions had GTO badges, while 80.5 percent were officially rated athletes, and 39.5 percent had the title of amateur instructor or judge. On several occasions, combined teams of Trudovye Rezervy athletes have been victorious in all-Union competitions in boxing, ski jumping, rhythmic gymnastics, acrobatics, motorboating, and motorcycling.
During the years 1947–75, Trudovye Rezervy athletes won gold medals at the Olympic Games nine times, at world championships 32 times, at European championships 67 times, and at USSR championships more than 1,200 times. They have set 45 world records, five European records, and 348 USSR records.
Champions and prizewinners at the Olympic Games and the world and European championships have included V. N. Engibarían, O. G. Grigor’ev, D. I. Pozdniak, B. N. Kuznetsov, V. A. Solomin, V. I. Mednov, and V. N. Chernyshov (boxing); N. N. Solov’ev and M. V. Tsalkalamanidze (wrestling); A. V. Koshel’ (gymnastics); L. B. Nazmutdinova and A. B. Nazmutdi-nova (rhythmic gymnastics); A. I. Bogdanov, M. A. Itkis, V. P. Nasonov, and E. N. Polikanin (shooting); and N. A. Ustinova. Prominent athletes who began their sports careers in Trudovye Rezervy include Honored Masters of Sport V. V. Petrov and B. P. Mikhailov (ice hockey), P. A. Stolbov (gymnastics), A. P. Kolchina (skiing), and V. S. Tsibulenko (track and field).
Since 1946, Trudovye Rezervy has conducted all-Union Spar-takiads. Since 1975 it has conducted all-Union Games for students of vocational-technical education.
In 1973, Trudovye Rezervy was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor.
J. P. ZALETAEV