The lake formed as a result of breakthrough of the Temnik River runoff (a tributary of the Selenga) towards the Lake Gusinoe depression and the partial filling of the depression via Lake Tsaidam by Tsagan-Ghol channel .
Additional samples were collected in the adjacent water bodies, the Zagustay River flowing into the lake in its northern part and Lake Tsaidam adjoining to the southeastern shore of Lake Gusinoe and connecting with the latter by a channel.
All six species were found in Lake Gusinoe, and four of them were also detected in Lake Tsaidam, and only two species were reported in the Zagustay River.
It would have been a simple matter to detach a small force and send it along the route south of the Tsaidam
to the Charklik/Miran area (the old Shanshan kingdom on the southern silk route), then north and west along the course of the Tarim, Yarkand and Kashgar rivers, where water, grazing and supplies would be available in larger quantities than in the drier climate of today, and so to rendezvous with the Turkish armies near Kashgar.
Hearing me speak of the Tsaidam
and the Smigunovs, he had said coldly: "As a matter of fact, I am going back to Europe by that route.
* China's Occupation of Tibet: China invaded Tibet in the 1950s and began developing the oil-rich Tsaidam
Basin, driving out native Tibetans and repopulating the region with Chinese workers--many of them brought in to build a 4,200-kilometer West-East natural gas pipeline.
In early 1942, Chongqing successfully broke up this Muslim bloc by ordering Ma Buqing to transfer his troops to the Tsaidam Basin of Kokonor on the pretext of "colonizing and guarding" that area.
In return, Chongqing later issued an order allowing Ma Bufang to take over the forces in the Tsaidam. By doing so, Ma Buqing's political and military authority in the Northwest thus came to an end.
The special features of the relief--large and deep depressions (Tarim, Tsaidam, the southern Helan Shan Plateau) surrounded by the high mountain massifs of the Tian Shan, Kunlun, Altun Shan and Nan--create an extremely dry climate, as these mountain ranges isolate the land from the moist air masses coming from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.
Throughout their long and varied geological history, the highlands of the deserts of Ordos, Bei Shan and Gashun, the Mongolian Gobi and other gobis, and the western Tsaidam have been caught in a cycle of abrasion of the original relief and the subsequent transport of these erosion products beyond their frontiers.
The Tsaidam (or Qaidam) Basin, a depression in the high mountains, is surrounded by high ranges in the northeast of the Plateau of Tibet.
all the inhabitants went in spring to some rising grounds; [later], when flies and blood-sucking insects appeared, those who had herds went to the wells, which were almost two days away from the source of the river; when the insects had disappeared, they returned to the banks of the river." The Mongols who lived in the Tsaidam
also moved their livestock away from the marshy areas in summer and to the mountains in order to avoid the flies, mosquitoes, and midges, which were especially troublesome for the camels.