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, czar
1. (until 1917) the emperor of Russia
2. Informal a public official charged with responsibility for dealing with a certain problem or issue
3. (formerly) any of several S Slavonic rulers, such as any of the princes of Serbia in the 14th century



(also, czar; from the latin caesar, the title used by the Roman emperors), in Russia and Bulgaria, the official title of the monarch. In Russia the title of tsar was first adopted by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) in 1547. From 1721 the Russian tsars adopted the title of emperor. In Bulgaria the monarchs bore the title of tsar from the end of the 19th century to the proclamation of the People’s Republic in 1946.

References in periodicals archive ?
The Khlopova affair of 1616 (Mikhail's first fiancee, Mar'ia Ivanovna Khlopova, was removed from court on the pretext that she suffered from an illness which would prevent her from bearing children) he rightly interprets as the result of court rivalry between Mar'ia's kinsmen, the Khlopovs, and the Saltykovs, the kinsmen of the young tsar's mother.
Polukhin (14 April 1708), who accused the Cossacks of Pristan Township of chasing off "the tsar's horses," they said to him that "those horses .
The reception and adaptation of Byzantine rituals in Muscovy were later discussed in much greater detail in Uspenskii's Tsar' i patriarkh.
Later, he secured a place in the heart of the tsar's wife, Alexandra, a grand-daughter of Queen Victoria.
The tsar's family members threw white sand, representing the earth, on to the coffins before the crypt was covered.
The Duke of Edinburgh - who is related to the Tsar's Romanov family - supplied a DNA sample.
At the end of 2009 the Bulgarian Parliament voted to freeze the former Tsar's rights to lands in the Rila mountains, on grounds of information disclosed after an investigation at the Ministry of Agriculture, according to which the former monarch was granted more land than his family actually owned.
Such a generalization is borne out by an analysis of how the Muscovite court system mitigated judicial violence by the use of the tsar's "mercy" in the 17th century.
In papers from KGB archives published yesterday, a soldier claimed he buried 26 boxes of the Tsar's gold near the famous Trans-Siberian railway, 2,215 miles east of Moscow.
In a tsar's charter to the town of Sol' Vychegodskaya, dated on 14 September 1598, there is a more detailed list of ranks that asked Boris Godunov to accept the crown, but it also does not emphasize the fact that he was elected by a Zemsky Sobor.