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, czar
1. (until 1917) the emperor of Russia
2. Informal a public official charged with responsibility for dealing with a certain problem or issue
3. (formerly) any of several S Slavonic rulers, such as any of the princes of Serbia in the 14th century



(also, czar; from the latin caesar, the title used by the Roman emperors), in Russia and Bulgaria, the official title of the monarch. In Russia the title of tsar was first adopted by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) in 1547. From 1721 the Russian tsars adopted the title of emperor. In Bulgaria the monarchs bore the title of tsar from the end of the 19th century to the proclamation of the People’s Republic in 1946.

References in periodicals archive ?
He proposes that in the 18th century the authority of the ruling family, and the institution of the tsar's power more broadly, suffered in the eyes of the people when "the behavior of the tsars and tsarinas ...
For a more sympathetic response to Lukin's work, see Maureen Perrie, "Samozvanchestvo Reconsidered: 'Calling Oneself a Tsar' in Seventeenth-Century Russia," in Novye napravleniia i rezul'taty v mezhdunarodnykh issledovaniiakh po rusistike / New Directions and Results in International Russistics, ed.
Following a credit card payment to a business unknown with premises unheard of, Tsar's tablets duly arrived as promised, postmarked in China.
Now the mother, who was a teenager and friend of the tsar's daughters just before they were assassinated, is a nurse taking care of soldiers fighting the Nazis.
Christened 'The Tsar's Train', toy dealer Jeffrey Levitt claimed it had belonged to Tsar Nicholas II and even produced an old photo showing the Russian imperial family with it.
Karaosta (Warport) was set up by the Russian Tsar's army and then taken over by the Soviets.
It is understood that the sport tsar's role will be to advise the Assembly on all aspects of Welsh sport but Mr Emyr's experience of the Welsh rugby scene could prove particularly useful in the light of Mr Morgan's concerns about the game.
In counterpoint to the historical footage, the video follows various historians and an ex-policeman as they attempt to unravel the mystery of the murder and the location of the unmarked grave of the Tsar's family.
In successive chapters Roberts, a former British diplomat in Hungary, details the tsarist government's alarm over the 1848 revolutions in central Europe, its decision to reinforce Turkish control over the Danubian principalities (and reaffirm Russia's right to meddle in Turkish affairs), the October revolution in Vienna, the initial Russian intervention in Transylvania, and the tsar's decision in April 1849 to commit Russian troops to Hungary.
The Tsar's determination to keep insurrection out of his country extended even to his personal censorship of the work of Aleksandr Pushkin.
The issue of the so called "Tsar's estates" stirred indignation in Bulgaria over doubts that the property had been given to Saxe-Coburg unlawfully.