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, czar
1. (until 1917) the emperor of Russia
2. Informal a public official charged with responsibility for dealing with a certain problem or issue
3. (formerly) any of several S Slavonic rulers, such as any of the princes of Serbia in the 14th century
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also, czar; from the latin caesar, the title used by the Roman emperors), in Russia and Bulgaria, the official title of the monarch. In Russia the title of tsar was first adopted by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) in 1547. From 1721 the Russian tsars adopted the title of emperor. In Bulgaria the monarchs bore the title of tsar from the end of the 19th century to the proclamation of the People’s Republic in 1946.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, owing to the drift in the Russia's Tibet Policy, the Dalai Lama's appeal letter to the Tsar of Russia remained unacknowledged, as neither any letter nor dispatch of envoys took place in the following years.
Ivan the Terrible: First Tsar of Russia. By Isabel de Madariaga.
Ivan the Terrible: First Tsar of Russia. Isabel de Madariaga.
(or Ivan the Terrible, 1530 - 1584) Tsar of Russia (1533 - 84).
By the turn of the century, he opened another shop at 25, Old Bond Street, with clients from high-powered business figures and British and European Royalty, such as the King of Siam, the Emperor of Japan, and the Tsar of Russia. JW Benson also supplied watches to Queen Victoria.
Screenings were also held for most heads of state, kings, queens and even the tsar of Russia.
Equally thought-provoking stuff comes in Mussorgsky's Khovanschina, muscularly detailing the struggles between old and new factions during the reforming reign of Peter the Great as Tsar of Russia during the concluding decades of the 17th century.
A Rhode Island B Jamestown, Virginia C Maryland D Newfoundland QUESTION 11 - for 11 points: What was the family name of the last Tsar of Russia? A Romanov B Petrov C Ivanov D Ustinov QUESTION 12 - for 12 points: Which of these capital cities is nearest to the North Pole?
Dating back to the 1890s, it has been rumoured that the six mythical griffins were a gift to the city from the Tsar of Russia.
1835, PS192bn 5 Last Tsar of Russia Nicholas II, b.
Little is known of the Welsh influence in the country where Merthyr Tydfil steelworker John Hughes was asked by the Tsar of Russia to go and start a steelworks in 1870.
There was, nevertheless, considerable demand for his books and both Queen Victoria and the Tsar of Russia were among those who purchased copies.