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, czar
1. (until 1917) the emperor of Russia
2. Informal a public official charged with responsibility for dealing with a certain problem or issue
3. (formerly) any of several S Slavonic rulers, such as any of the princes of Serbia in the 14th century



(also, czar; from the latin caesar, the title used by the Roman emperors), in Russia and Bulgaria, the official title of the monarch. In Russia the title of tsar was first adopted by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) in 1547. From 1721 the Russian tsars adopted the title of emperor. In Bulgaria the monarchs bore the title of tsar from the end of the 19th century to the proclamation of the People’s Republic in 1946.

References in periodicals archive ?
His interpretation of tsardom was more circumstantial and experimental as it echoed the ongoing controversy about Muscovite imperial claims.
19 Sumner, Tsardom and Imperialism in the Far East, p.
It is here that West took her stand in the postwar world against revolution, reaffirming what she had said 20 years earlier about the Russian Revolution - that it was bound to restore the tyranny of tsardom.
It is therefore wiser to face the facts and to recognize that the Tsardom is after all Russia's form of democracy.
Siegel seeks to explain why and how Solzhenitsyn abandoned his earlier faith in the Bolshevik Revolution for the traditional beliefs of Slavophiles in the virtues of Tsardom and the Russian Orthodox Church.
This intelligentsia, while welcoming the fall of tsardom, did not, on the whole, get on too well with the Bolsheviks.
A study of Grand Princess Evdokiia's portrayal in the two versions of the Skazanie vmale found in the SK and in the LLS respectively suggests that in the 1560s and 1570s, the widow of the victor at Kulikovo Pole attracted the attention of the bookmen and artists at Ivan IV's court, who were instrumental in formulating the ideology of the new Muscovite tsardom.
It's ironic that Shostakovich could only dare to compose this music after the death of Josef Stalin, himself equally as despotic as the Tsardom he emulated after its overthrow.
136, 166-68 (1983) (indicating that the Bolshevik abolition of the Tsardom signified their rejection of the bourgeoisie).
According to a contemporary account, this celebrated the fall of tsardom and the establishment of liberal democracy.
This volume seeks to reframe the author's interest in a larger historical context and, as the overarching thesis, to make religion central to national identity: "With the baptism [in 988], Orthodoxy became a central element in Russian history and culture, whether in the days of the Kievan princes of the quasi-medieval appanage Russia, of the Orthodox tsardom of Muscovy, of the Orthodox empire of the Romanovs, or even, as the enemy, during the communist regime, which tried desperately but failed to eradicate it" (4-5).