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, czar
1. (until 1917) the emperor of Russia
2. Informal a public official charged with responsibility for dealing with a certain problem or issue
3. (formerly) any of several S Slavonic rulers, such as any of the princes of Serbia in the 14th century
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also, czar; from the latin caesar, the title used by the Roman emperors), in Russia and Bulgaria, the official title of the monarch. In Russia the title of tsar was first adopted by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) in 1547. From 1721 the Russian tsars adopted the title of emperor. In Bulgaria the monarchs bore the title of tsar from the end of the 19th century to the proclamation of the People’s Republic in 1946.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
This statement was important to the eighteenth-century reader because in those days the term Moscovie or "Muscovy" still lingered on, with the understanding in the background that the term Russie, for some observers at least, such as the geographer Belleforest, or the cartographer Beauplan, the lands that today compose "Ukraine" were the true Russie, while the Tsardom to their north-east was simply Moscovie.
See Valerie Kivelson, Cartographies of Tsardom: The Land and its Meanings in Seventeenth-Century Russia (Ithaca, 2006).
Of course, USSR founded by Lenin was included the area that the Russia of Tsardom had sovereignty over and even more.
Russia had become increasingly politicised, as selfless young activists, or Populists, sought to combat the iniquities prevailing in the wake of serfdom (formally abolished in 1861) by taking education to the people, and opposition to the regime of a distant and autocratic tsardom swelled.
They would ironically have agreed on tsardom too: Stalin said that 'the Russian people need a tsar' and used the imagery of a Red Tsar.
In an act of Africanist subversion, Pushkin seemed to situate the monologue in the middle of the scene as a celebration of a golden era of tsardom long since past in Russia.
Other states did try the formula, like Austria-Hungary, Tsardom and Spain, but none succeeded so well.
Soviet internal system will now be subjected, by virtue of recent territorial expansions, to series of additional strains which once proved severe tax on Tsardom....
Precautions Act as evidence of local Tsardom. (56) The October
(They were similar to the revolutionaries of tsarist Russia, who also had diverse views of what would happen to their country after the end of tsardom.) Some saw Russia as a society similar to that of the West; others, like Solzhenitsyn, the most famous moderate dissident, stressed spiritual liberation.
Tsardom's last gasp than in the tradition of Gladstone and Clement