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, czar
1. (until 1917) the emperor of Russia
2. Informal a public official charged with responsibility for dealing with a certain problem or issue
3. (formerly) any of several S Slavonic rulers, such as any of the princes of Serbia in the 14th century
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also, czar; from the latin caesar, the title used by the Roman emperors), in Russia and Bulgaria, the official title of the monarch. In Russia the title of tsar was first adopted by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) in 1547. From 1721 the Russian tsars adopted the title of emperor. In Bulgaria the monarchs bore the title of tsar from the end of the 19th century to the proclamation of the People’s Republic in 1946.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Meanwhile, a relic of the tsarist period was resurrected.
It provides a unique fifty-page source of extensive reference material from the tsarist period through the Soviet regime to the post-Soviet era.
David Ransel was certainly right when he wrote in 2001 that the remarkable changes of the 1990s did not produce a "single research community," but the intensity of exchange and contact was stunning, and the writing on nationality and empire in the tsarist period was central to the new dynamism.
Johnson, Diane Koenker and others on the late tsarist period also show that peasant-workers influenced urban culture, came into conflict with older workers and did not easily acquire proletarian discipline or consciousness.
With most attention devoted to the twentieth century, less depth is afforded Siberian history of the tsarist period. Perhaps the most noticeable absence is the almost total lack of information on the role of the Orthodox Church, Orthodox schismatics, Buddhists, and other native Siberian religions in Siberian history.
The bulk of Iukhneva's contribution deals with the tsarist period, focusing on the second half of the 19th century; a concluding chapter discusses the city's major ethnic groups primarily in the era ofperestroika.
Throughout the last half-century of the tsarist period, Estonians were outnumbered among other non-Russians in Petersburg only by Germans, Poles, Finns, Jews, and, by 1881, Belarusians.
As Burbank points out for the tsarist period, in ethnic terms there were "multiple maps of 'theys'" (405) and no clear definition of the hegemonic "we"--that is, the Russian nationality.