Still, it was clear enough for him that the wine-loving Iliodor of Tsaritsyn
(and the thematically related plot) was no longer a suitable prototype.
Both biographers see as a constant Stalin's suspiciousness of experts and intellectuals, and both emphasize the formative influence of his "Tsaritsyn
approach," the Civil War commissar's 1918 combination of harsh maneuvers against military specialists and fabricated counterrevolutionary plots on the Southern Front (Khlevniuk, 55-59, quotation 57; Kotkin, 300-7).
Principal campaigns and battles: East Prussia (1914); Kerensky or 2d Brusilov offensive (1917); Tsaritsyn
(Volgograd)-Saratov (1919); South Ukraine-Crimea (1920).
Khlevniuk details an episode from the summer of 1918: Stalin was in Tsaritsyn
on the Volga to organize the defense of the city.
Principal battles: Tsaritsyn
(Volgograd), Orenburg (1919); Bataysk, Uman', Berdichev, L'vov (1920); Crimean campaign (1920-1921); Kiev (1941).
(Moscow: Rosspen, 2001); Anton Posadskii, Ot Tsaritsyn
do Syzrani: Ocherki grazhdanskoi voiny na Volge (Moscow: AIRO-XXI, 2010); Tanja Penter, Odessa 1917: Revolution an der Peripherie (Cologne: Bohlau, 2000).
It is especially concerned with how Peter I redefined Russo-Cossack relations to serve his imperial program; how the Don Cossacks responded to the advance of Russian colonization toward the southern Don and the stabilization of their frontier with the Crimean khanate; how they coped with the new restrictions on raiding, previously essential to the Cossack economy; and how they found some compensations as steppe conflict shifted eastward to the Tsaritsyn
Line, the Kuban' River and the gates of the northern Caucasus.
See also the biographical articles by Simon Dixon: "Sergii (Stragorodskii) in the Russian Orthodox Diocese of Finland: Apostasy and Mixed Marriages, 1905-1917," Slavonic and East European Review 82, 1 (2004): 50-73; "The 'Mad Monk' Iliodor in Tsaritsyn
," Slavonic and East European Review 88, 1-2 (2010): 377-415; and "Archimandrite Mikhail (Semenov) and Russian Christian Socialism," Historical Journal 51, 3 (2008): 689-718.
(60) In 1772, another False Peter, Fedot Kazin-Bogomolov, imprisoned at Tsaritsyn
as a pretender, showed one of his guards the mark of a cross on his chest, and on the strength of this succeeded in persuading him and many others that he was indeed the deposed tsar.
For example, in his youth each leader had to have accomplished a feat comparable to Stalin's defense of Tsaritsyn
. His meeting with Lenin and/or Stalin was treated with particular care: it was the one between the eagle and the eaglet.