Tswana


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Related to Tswana: Setswana, Tswana language

Tswana

 

(also Chuana, Western Sotho), a language of the Sotho group of the southeastern Bantu languages. According to a 1970 estimate, Tswana is spoken in Lesotho, as well as in the western Transvaal and in northern Cape Province in the Republic of South Africa, by more than 1 million people.

The system of 9 vowels in Tswana exhibits the opposition open-closed in the phonemes [I], [e], [o], and [u]. Consonants include voiced and voiceless alveolar fricatives and affricates. Clicks, which occur only in ideophones, form a peripheral phonetic subsystem. Nasalization, palatalization, and alveolarization of consonants occur at morpheme boundaries.

Nouns are arranged in 18 categories, or noun classes, that form a system of concordances; there are two special classes made up of proper names, kinship terms, and totemic animals, and locative classes, which are weakly expressed in the other languages of the Sotho group. Classes are marked by monosyllabic prefixes. Verbs are conjugated by means of affixes; the diminutive aspect is formed by full reduplication of the verbal root.

The lexicon of Tswana abounds in ideophones. Sentences observe the following pattern: subject-predicate-object.

REFERENCES

Crisp, W. Notes Towards a Secoana Grammar, 3rd ed. London, 1900.
Cole, D. T. An Introduction to Tswana Grammar. London-New York, 1955.
Brown, J. T. Secwana Dictionary. London, 1954.

N. V. OKHOTINA

References in periodicals archive ?
Mwai et al [63] revealed that, the Tswana cattle from Botswana are also resistant to heavy tick challenges.
The British ruled the Bechuanaland Protectorate indirectly through the Tswana dikgosi (rulers, singular: kgosi), bolstering their authority.
El caso Tswana, que parece ser una excepcion que aclara la regla, se impone como un hibrido que desprecia el voto de eleccion y valora el voto de rechazo.
The Sotho and Tswana call it Selemela, and the Zulu isiLimela, who believed that these stars die in winter dusk and are reborn in the rainy season (the Pleiades reappear in the evening sky in October).
Color photographs--usually more than one--are accompanied by information on the English and Tswana names and their origins, the kind of plant, height, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit, and miscellaneous notes on such matters as use or dangers.
In a bid to establish Waterman Botswana, Waterman Swaziland has secured a deal with a Tswana entrepreneur.
Schapera emphasises how having and raising children is the cornerstone of the family and society in Tswana culture (15).
This was largely owing to the way campaigns have been publicised and carried out among Tswana communities that already practise circumcision via traditional initiation schools.
The two men, who are both 27 years old, combined their Zulu and Tswana African tribe traditions in front of 200 some guests.
The traditional Tswana idea is that stars are holes in the rocky vault that is the sky.
Se arma una discusion densa de una hora en tswana, una de las 11 lenguas oficiales de Sudafrica.