Tswana

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Tswana

 

(also Chuana, Western Sotho), a language of the Sotho group of the southeastern Bantu languages. According to a 1970 estimate, Tswana is spoken in Lesotho, as well as in the western Transvaal and in northern Cape Province in the Republic of South Africa, by more than 1 million people.

The system of 9 vowels in Tswana exhibits the opposition open-closed in the phonemes [I], [e], [o], and [u]. Consonants include voiced and voiceless alveolar fricatives and affricates. Clicks, which occur only in ideophones, form a peripheral phonetic subsystem. Nasalization, palatalization, and alveolarization of consonants occur at morpheme boundaries.

Nouns are arranged in 18 categories, or noun classes, that form a system of concordances; there are two special classes made up of proper names, kinship terms, and totemic animals, and locative classes, which are weakly expressed in the other languages of the Sotho group. Classes are marked by monosyllabic prefixes. Verbs are conjugated by means of affixes; the diminutive aspect is formed by full reduplication of the verbal root.

The lexicon of Tswana abounds in ideophones. Sentences observe the following pattern: subject-predicate-object.

REFERENCES

Crisp, W. Notes Towards a Secoana Grammar, 3rd ed. London, 1900.
Cole, D. T. An Introduction to Tswana Grammar. London-New York, 1955.
Brown, J. T. Secwana Dictionary. London, 1954.

N. V. OKHOTINA

References in periodicals archive ?
E and F); but this comparison is problematic in that an insufficient number of male Tswanas were available in this subgroup to attempt reliable estimates.
Female members of larger African ethnic groups - especially female Tswanas - outperform all other black subgroups.
This former political entity was grossly illegitimate in the eyes of many Tswanas.
Assessment forms were prepared in the following nine mother tongues: Afrikaans, English, Xhosa, Pedi, South Sotho, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, and Zulu.
The effect of Tswana membership remains strong, although it is reduced by controlling on school attainment.