(in European literature known as Suleiman). Born 1827, in Paoshan District, Yunnan Province; died Dec. 26, 1872. Leader of an anti-Ch’ing Muslim uprising (the Panthay rebellion of 1855-73) in Yunnan, China.
Tu Wen-hsiu, a petty merchant, belonged to the Huei (Panthay) people. In 1856 the insurgents elected him as the commander in chief and head of the state of P’ing-nan Kuo (State of the Pacification of the South). In 1872, Ch’ing government troops besieged the city of Tali, the capital of P’ing-nan Kuo. Tu Wen-hsiu, in an attempt to prevent the annihilation of the peaceful population, surrendered to the enemy camp and was executed.