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see urinary systemurinary system,
group of organs of the body concerned with excretion of urine, that is, water and the waste products of metabolism. In humans, the kidneys are two small organs situated near the vertebral column at the small of the back, the left lying somewhat higher than the
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the basic structural and functional unit of the kidneys in vertebrate animals and man. A distinction is made between aglomerular and glomerular nephrons. Aglomerular nephrons are found in certain fishes and contain cells of a single type; glomerular nephrons, found in all other vertebrates and in man, contain the Malpighian bodies and Bowman’s capsules. The renal tubules extend from Bowman’s capsules.

The cells of glomerular nephrons are highly specialized to perform the functions required in the formation of urine—filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. In embryos the nephron also includes the nephrostomes, which are the ciliated infundibuli of the tubules. The nephrostomes open into the body cavity.


The functional unit of a kidney, consisting of the glomerulus with its capsule and attached uriniferous tubule.
References in periodicals archive ?
Prerenal proteinuria (Bence Jones proteinuria), attributable to overproduction of light chains in monoclonal diseases, or lysozymuria in patients with leukemia and the resulting overload of tubulo-interstitial reabsorption in the kidney often lead to secondary kidney damage.
18 Likewise, a retrospective analysis 1 of 220 case of MPGN, found that tubulo-interstitial changes were of decisive significance.
The consequences of tubulo-interstitial changes for renal function in glomerulopathies: a morphometric and cytological analysis.
A case of predominantly chronic tubulo-interstitial nephritis with mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis in a patient with hepatic hydatid cyst which responded to cyst resection was reported.

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