Tupac Amaru(to͞opäk` ämä`ro͞o), 1742?–1781, leader of indigenous peoples in the viceroyalty of Peru, baptized José Gabriel Condorcanqui. A man of some education and of high moral character, he sympathized with the plight of the native people of Peru and sought to alleviate their condition. Unable to persuade the Spanish colonial government to better conditions in the textile mills, the mines, and the villages, Condorcanqui, under the name of the Inca Tupac Amaru (his supposed ancestor), led a rebellion in 1780. The indigenous people flocked to support him, and at first Tupac Amaru was successful. He was later captured and brutally executed. The revolt continued, notably with the siege of La Paz in 1781, but was finally crushed. All of Tupac Amaru's family were executed or imprisoned, but many of the reforms for which he fought were granted.
See C. F. Walker, The Tupac Amaru Rebellion (2014).
Died 1571. Leader of a Peruvian Indian struggle against the Spanish conquistadors.
In 1571, Tupac Amaru led a rebellion of the Indians of Cuzco in an attempt to restore the Inca state. Tupac Amaru was captured and executed. This brutal reprisal inflamed the Indian population, which rose again in rebellion. Leaders of many Indian uprisings in Andean countries adopted the name of Tupac Amaru, which became a symbol of Indian independence.