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Tupamaros(to͞opämä`rōs), urban guerrilla organization and political party in Uruguay, also known as the National Liberation Army. Named for the IncaInca
, pre-Columbian empire, W South America. The name Inca may specifically refer to the emperor, but is generally used to mean the empire or the people. Extent and Organization of the Empire
..... Click the link for more information. revolutionist Tupac AmaruTupac Amaru
, 1742?–1781, leader of indigenous peoples in the viceroyalty of Peru, baptized José Gabriel Condorcanqui. A man of some education and of high moral character, he sympathized with the plight of the native people of Peru and sought to alleviate their
..... Click the link for more information. , it became active as a guerrilla force in the early 1960s, distributing stolen food and money among the poor in Montevideo. By the late 1960s, it was engaged in urban terrorism, political kidnappings, and murder. The military unleashed a bloody campaign of mass arrests and selected disappearances in the early 1970s, virtually defeating the guerrillas. Despite the diminished threat, the civilian government of Juan María Bordaberry ArocenaBordaberry Arocena, Juan María,
1928–2011, Uruguayan politician. Born into a wealthy and politically conservative family, he was elected (1962) senator as a member of the National party.
..... Click the link for more information. ceded government authority to the military (1973), a bloodless coup which led to further repression against the population. Democracy was restored in 1985, and the Tupamaros were reorganized as a legal political party. Becoming part of the Broad Front leftist coalition, they helped it win power in 2004. In 2009, José "Pepe" Mujica, a former Tupamaros guerrilla, was the Broad Front candidate for president of Uruguay and won the election.