Tupamaros


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Tupamaros

(to͞opämä`rōs), urban guerrilla organization and political party in Uruguay, also known as the National Liberation Army. Named for the IncaInca
, pre-Columbian empire, W South America. The name Inca may specifically refer to the emperor, but is generally used to mean the empire or the people. Extent and Organization of the Empire
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 revolutionist Tupac AmaruTupac Amaru
, 1742?–1781, leader of indigenous peoples in the viceroyalty of Peru, baptized José Gabriel Condorcanqui. A man of some education and of high moral character, he sympathized with the plight of the native people of Peru and sought to alleviate their
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, it became active as a guerrilla force in the early 1960s, distributing stolen food and money among the poor in Montevideo. By the late 1960s, it was engaged in urban terrorism, political kidnappings, and murder. The military unleashed a bloody campaign of mass arrests and selected disappearances in the early 1970s, virtually defeating the guerrillas. Despite the diminished threat, the civilian government of Juan María Bordaberry ArocenaBordaberry Arocena, Juan María,
1928–2011, Uruguayan politician. Born into a wealthy and politically conservative family, he was elected (1962) senator as a member of the National party.
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 ceded government authority to the military (1973), a bloodless coup which led to further repression against the population. Democracy was restored in 1985, and the Tupamaros were reorganized as a legal political party. Becoming part of the Broad Front leftist coalition, they helped it win power in 2004. In 2009, José "Pepe" Mujica, a former Tupamaros guerrilla, was the Broad Front candidate for president of Uruguay and won the election.
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References in periodicals archive ?
He documents the growing gap between the luxury of the elites and the misery of the masses which produced the Tupamaros in Uruguay and their less flamboyant counterparts in Brazil.
In Memorias del calabozo (1989) Rosencof himself, along with fellow Tupamaro member and hostage Eleuterio Huidobro Fernandez, through a series of conversations, reflected on his own personal experience of torture and humiliation as a prisoner under the Uruguayan military dictatorship.
With polls placing him as the frontrunner, Mujica, 74, is nonetheless viewed with suspicion by some of the country's conservatives because he was a founder of the Marxist Tupamaros guerilla movement.
One of the oldest self-proclaimed security groups in that barrio is the "Tupamaros" (named after the leftist Uruguayan guerrillas of the 1970s).
Remember Dan Mitrione, kidnapped and killed by Uruguay's Tupamaros and portrayed by Yves Montand in Costa-Gavras's film State of Siege?