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(Turkoman), the language of the Turkmens, spoken in the Turkmen SSR and in the Uzbek, Tadzhik, and Kazakh SSR’s, the Kara-Kalpak ASSR, Stavropol’ Krai in the RSFSR, Iran, Afghanistan, Turkey, and Iraq. According to the 1970 census, there are approximately 1.5 million speakers of Turkmen in the USSR.

Turkmen belongs to the Oghuz group of Turkic languages. It evolved from the western tribal languages of the Oghuz, although in the course of time it acquired certain features typical of the Turkic languages of the Kipchak group. The major Turkmen dialects include Tekke, Yomud, Ersar, Salyr, Saryk, and Chovdur. The dialect of the Stavropol’ Turkmens traditionally has been called Trukhmen. The principal phonetic features of Turkmen are the preservation of initial long vowels, a developed labial vowel harmony, and the presence of the interdentals [s] and [z] instead of the [s] and [z] of other Turkic languages. In Turkmen morphology, nouns have the categories of number, possessivity, and case, of which there are six in the literary language. Adjectives are uninflected. Nominal and verbal-nominal parts of speech that function as predicates acquire the category of predi-cativity. The verb has five moods and five voices.

The old Turkmen literary language was used primarily in poetry. The modern language was standardized after the October Revolution of 1917. Turkmen was written in Arabic script until 1928; the Latin alphabet was used from 1928 to 1940, when the current writing system based on the Cyrillic alphabet was introduced.


Potseluevskii, A. P. Izbr. tr. Ashkhabad, 1975.
Baskakov, N. A. K istorii izucheniia turkmenskogo iazyka. Ashkhabad, 1965. (Bibliography.)
Grammatika turkmenskogo iazyka, part 1. Ashkhabad, 1970.
Russko-turkmenskii slovar’, Moscow, 1956.
Turkmensko-russkii slovar’. Moscow, 1968.
Turkmen dilining dialektlerining ocherki. Ashkhabad, 1970.


References in periodicals archive ?
Other distinct groups include Turcoman, Chaldeans, Assyrians, and Armenians.
Neither Sunni nor Shia Arabs nor Turkey, as the protector of Kirkuk's Turcoman population, is happy with this situation.
When I asked the mayor if ethnic differences will prevent people from working together, the Turcoman assistant mayor immediately said: "We have never had ethnic problems in the past.
The Turkish government has created pro-Turkish parties amongst the Turcoman and intends to use them to pursue its own policies in Iraq.
A Turcoman carpet merch ant would always give food to a poor man who came to him and a small amount of money from each sale went into a coffer for widows and orphans.
The Iraqi Turkmen or Iraqi Turks (commonly misspelled as Turcomans, Turkomens, and Iraqi Turkmans) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group, the third-largest ethnic group (after Arabs and Kurds) in Iraq, living mostly in northern Iraq, in an area which they call "Turkmeneli", notably in the cities of Kirkuk, Arbil, Talafar and Mosul.
The statement of the Arab and Turcoman representatives also highlighted the need for a real settlement of the disputed areas that are covered by Article 140 of the Iraqi Constitution.
Turkey, for example, vehemently opposes the incorporation of Kirkuk into Kurdistan Region, exploits the Turcoman community, and established a puppet organization called Turcoman Front to destabilize Kirkuk city.
Another blast killed 20 people in the ethnically mixed northern city of Kirkuk, disputed between Kurds, Arabs, Turcoman and others.
Another issue for the Turks is status of the Turcoman minority in the north, ethnic Turks with strong links across the border.
The Azeris are Shia, but half of the Kurds are Sunni and provide the primary base of the small orthodox Muslim minority (5 percent), which also includes the Baluch, Turcoman and some of the Arab communities.
The inscription also mentions the name of Uzun Hasan, the warrior leader of the Akkoyunlu (White Sheep) Turcoman confederation of eastern Anatolia and ruler of much of Iran from 1469 until his death in 1478.