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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Turkoman), the language of the Turkmens, spoken in the Turkmen SSR and in the Uzbek, Tadzhik, and Kazakh SSR’s, the Kara-Kalpak ASSR, Stavropol’ Krai in the RSFSR, Iran, Afghanistan, Turkey, and Iraq. According to the 1970 census, there are approximately 1.5 million speakers of Turkmen in the USSR.

Turkmen belongs to the Oghuz group of Turkic languages. It evolved from the western tribal languages of the Oghuz, although in the course of time it acquired certain features typical of the Turkic languages of the Kipchak group. The major Turkmen dialects include Tekke, Yomud, Ersar, Salyr, Saryk, and Chovdur. The dialect of the Stavropol’ Turkmens traditionally has been called Trukhmen. The principal phonetic features of Turkmen are the preservation of initial long vowels, a developed labial vowel harmony, and the presence of the interdentals [s] and [z] instead of the [s] and [z] of other Turkic languages. In Turkmen morphology, nouns have the categories of number, possessivity, and case, of which there are six in the literary language. Adjectives are uninflected. Nominal and verbal-nominal parts of speech that function as predicates acquire the category of predi-cativity. The verb has five moods and five voices.

The old Turkmen literary language was used primarily in poetry. The modern language was standardized after the October Revolution of 1917. Turkmen was written in Arabic script until 1928; the Latin alphabet was used from 1928 to 1940, when the current writing system based on the Cyrillic alphabet was introduced.


Potseluevskii, A. P. Izbr. tr. Ashkhabad, 1975.
Baskakov, N. A. K istorii izucheniia turkmenskogo iazyka. Ashkhabad, 1965. (Bibliography.)
Grammatika turkmenskogo iazyka, part 1. Ashkhabad, 1970.
Russko-turkmenskii slovar’, Moscow, 1956.
Turkmensko-russkii slovar’. Moscow, 1968.
Turkmen dilining dialektlerining ocherki. Ashkhabad, 1970.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Besides carpets and rugs, the Turcomans produced countless items made with wool for their daily domestic needs and yurt furnishings, due to wood and metal being extremely difficult to come by and, not being flexible, difficult to transport.
The commission was formed from the "constituents of the Syrian people", being made up of "several ethnicities: Arab, Kurd, Chaldo-Assyrian, Assyrian, Turcoman, Circassian, Armenian and others".
11), during which four Sahwa fighters were killed and three Turcomans were wounded," Brigadier Sarhad Qader told Aswat al-Iraq news agency.
(18) There are several other very small ethnic minorities (Circassians, Turcomans, Armenians) and a minuscule Jewish community; most Jews left Syria after the removal of travel restrictions on them in the 1990s.
This minimalist but highly evocative style of painting developed under the court natronage of the Ak-Kovunlu Turcomans at Tabriz--a city that had risen as the centre of the Mongol Ilkhanid state but retained its importance under succeeding Turkic dynasties.
of Shi'a, Sunnis, Kurds, Assyrian Christians, Turcomans, Chaldeans,
-- This Law shall guarantee the administrative, cultural, and political rights of the Turcomans, ChaldoAssyrians, and all other citizens.
Wildly inflated figures for the number of Turcomans living in Iraq have been given in the Turkish media.
Iraq has also been unwilling to provide hard data on what is widely assumed to be a majority Shi'a population; Kurds, Turcomans and Assyrians also almost certainly overstate their numbers to preserve their political status in anticipation of a more normal state of affairs there.
There was colour in the kites flown on fine summer evenings from the Kabuli rooftops, in the carpets laid out for inspection in the local markets, in the balloons carried from place to place by itinerant vendors, in the painted lorries whose decoration married the designs of Victorian Valentine Cards sent to soldiers serving in India by their sweethearts at home with those of Indian cinema posters, and in the brightly coloured striped coats, the chapans, worn by the Turcomans; almost everywhere one looked in fact.
41), should be '[...] of the Turcomans', 'et sobre esta villa [Tarifa] fue desbaratado et vencido Alboacen, rrey de toda tierra del poniente de allen mar, et venciolo et desbaratolo el muy noble rrey don Alfonso de Castilla, et rrobole todos sus rreales et sus thesoros et todas sus mugeres, et matole sus cavallerias' (p.