Turkish language


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Turkish language,

member of the Turkic subdivision of the AltaicAltaic
, subfamily of the Ural-Altaic family of languages (see Uralic and Altaic languages). Some scholars still consider Altaic an independent linguistic family. Spoken by over 130 million people, who occupy parts of a territory that stretches from E Europe across the Central
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 subfamily of the Ural-Altaic family of languages (see Uralic and Altaic languagesUralic and Altaic languages
, two groups of related languages thought by many scholars to form a single Ural-Altaic linguistic family. However, other authorities hold that the Uralic and Altaic groups constitute two unconnected and separate language families.
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). Turkish is the official language of Turkey and one of the official languages of Cyprus. It is spoken by about 55 million people in Turkey and another million in Bulgaria, Greece, Cyprus, and North Macedonia. The speech of educated people in İstanbul is the standard form of the language. Like the other Uralic and Altaic languages, Turkish is characterized by vowel harmony and agglutination. Thus suffixes added to the stem of the verb may indicate passive, reflexive, causative, and other meanings. Postpositions are used instead of prepositions. Both the definite article and grammatical gender are lacking. Turkish was written in the Arabic script following the conversion of the Turks to Islam, but in 1928 the Turkish president, Kemal Atatürk, ordered a change to a modified version of the Roman alphabet. The reform was designed to introduce an alphabet better suited to Turkish than the Arabic script and also to lessen the hold of Islam on Turkey. In the 1930s the Turks attempted to purify their language by eliminating words of foreign, especially Persian and Arabic, origin and to simplify the literary style of the language, making it more similar to colloquial Turkish.

Bibliography

See U. Heyd, Language Reform in Modern Turkey (1954); G. L. Lewis, Turkish Grammar (1967); H. I. Sebüktekin, Turkish-English Contrastive Analysis (1971); E. E. Erguvanli, The Function of Word Order in Turkish Grammar (1984).

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References in classic literature ?
It had been supposed some of the papers might be in the Arabian, Romaic, or Turkish language, and the interpreter of the House was in attendance.
During the opening of a new factory in the town of Kardzhali on May 12 Ambassador Ulusoy said that Bulgaria should encourage the study of Turkish language, in order to attract more Turkish investments.
The two sides conducted follow-up discussion on the possibilities of cooperation between SQU and Turkish Maarif Foundation through exchange of students and introduction of Turkish language course offered to SQU students through the Department of Tourism of the College of Arts and Social Sciences.
The two sides conducted follow up discussion on the possibilities of cooperation between SQU and Turkish Maarif Foundation through exchange of students and introduction of Turkish language course offered to SQU students through the Department of Tourism of the College of Arts and Social Sciences.
Kamal suggests that a youth exchange program between Balochistan and Turkish universities should be launched, adding that Turkish language learning classes should start in Balochistan's universities.
On Saturday after PM visit to Turkey, slogan of Pak-Turk friendship and brotherhood in Turkish language has been posted on the website of government of Pakistan besides thanking Turkey after posting the flags of both countries.
Secure they have the best education, they should know Turkish language well, but also German, English and all other languages.
2 English or Turkish language textbooks are used: one class book and another is work book.
"We are proud of Azerbaijani and Turkish language. I urge the officials to promote the centers for Turkish language and literature.
Students and faculty were enrolling in the Turkish Universities and Turkish Language courses were being promoted in the University of AJK.
The Turkish language department of National University of Modern Languages (NUML) organized a lecture by Prof.

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