# Turnover of Capital

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

## Turnover of Capital

the circulation of capital, considered not as an isolated act but as a periodic process of renewal and a repetition of the movement of all advanced capital. In the process of reproduction, capital passes through the spheres of production and circulation. The time interval from the moment that capital value is advanced until it returns to the capitalist in its original (monetary) form is the turnover time of capital. This interval consists of the time of production and the time of circulation. Rate of turnover is measured by the year.

The number of turnover cycles of the given capital is determined by the formula N = T/t where N is the number of cycles, T is the time unit (in years) required for the turnover of capital, and t is the turnover time of the particular capital. Knowing the number of times capital circulates in a year makes it possible to establish and compare the rates of turnover for individual sums of capital.

In one cycle capital is changed from monetary form into productive capital, then into commodity capital, and is finally retransformed into money capital. During the process of turnover, capital operates simultaneously in all three forms, making its circuits in different time intervals. Fixed capital, the part of productive capital spent for the purchase of buildings, structures, machinery, and equipment, turns over in the course of a few periods of production, preserving its physical form. Its duration encompasses a few circulations of capital. The various elements of fixed capital differ in their longevity, and therefore their turnover times differ. Only their value turns over, and that gradually, in parts and to the extent to which this value is transferred to the finished product.

A part of circulating capital, which is the other component of capital and is expended on raw materials, auxiliary materials, and the like, turns over in one period of production, and its duration encompasses one complete circulation of capital. It is consumed in each production cycle. During its functioning it does not keep an independent physical form; for each new process of production it must be wholly replaced. The value of this part of capital is transferred fully to the finished commodity and returns to the capitalist in monetary form after the commodity is entirely sold. The total turnover of all advanced capital is the average turnover of its constituent parts, that is, of fixed and circulating capital.

To create a turnover not only in the value of productive capital but also in its physical form, it is necessary to put advanced capital into circulation again and again until all the fixed capital is productively consumed. The advanced capital should make a definite series of turnovers during which the fixed capital expended will be amortized.

With technological progress, advanced fixed capital grows more rapidly than circulating capital. Therefore, the index of the organic composition of capital increases and the internal contradictions of capitalism—above all the contradiction between production and consumption—grow worse. Growth in the index of the organic composition of capital increases the scope of production while it limits consumption, giving rise to disproportion and conflict between the potential for increasing production and the limited purchasing power of the population and the working masses in particular. This conflict gives rise to economic crises of overproduction.

Under contemporary capitalism, the contradictory nature of growth in fixed capital is becoming more intense. Using technological progress as the main weapon of competitive struggle, the monopolies are investing large amounts of money in the fixed capital of their enterprises in order to secure an economic advantage. This leads to a rise in labor productivity, a drop in employment, an expansion of social production, and an increase in socialization of the means of production. However, ownership of the fruits of production remains private, and this inevitably deepens and exacerbates the antagonistic contradiction between productive forces and capitalist production relationships.

The factors that determine the rate of turnover of capital exercise a significant influence on the production and realization of surplus value. Reducing circulation time decreases the proportion of commodity and money capital and increases the proportion of productive capital. As a result, it also increases the dimensions of the surplus value produced. Acceleration of natural processes and reduction of the working period through increased labor intensity, together with reduction of commodity and production reserves, enlarges the proportion of functioning capital and reduces idle capital. The rate of turnover of capital influences the rate of profit. The more rapidly capital turns over, the less capital needs to be advanced for a particular circuit and, where other conditions are equal, the greater the rate of profit will be. Acceleration of the turnover of capital as a whole also speeds up the turnover of variable capital.

### REFERENCE

Marx, K. Kapital, vol. 2. In K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 24, secs. 2 and 3, ch. 18.

I. L. GRIGOR’EVA

References in periodicals archive ?
Uzbekistan can be a financial center in the CIS in terms of volume and turnover of capital, said the President of the Interstate Bank Igor Suvorov the day before during talks in Tashkent with the Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Finance of Uzbekistan Jamshid Kuchkarov, Podrobno.uz reported.
The idea of creating an international financial center within the CIS is relevant and timely today more than ever, and we see that Uzbekistan can be a financial center in the CIS in terms of volume and turnover of capital. We hope for the speedy implementation of the ideas," Suvorov said.
The highest growth of nearly 40% was registered with the turnover of capital products - machines, tools and car components.
If we are able to find it, we will have a strong region," said Dacic, calling for the creation of a Scandinavian style of consultation among Western Balkan states.The Serbian prime minister said he was not seeking to recreate an illusion of a "utopia" of the former Yugoslavia, but rather to promote cooperation based on shared objectives."Our interest is that all of us be better positioned to increase the level of economic activity, to have an open market for the turnover of capital and people.
Free turnover of capital. The principle of free turnover of capital is one of the four basic principles established by European Community Treaty (article 677) from 1957.
In practice, the free turnover of capital began in 1990, as a result of adoption of Directive 88/361/EEC, which foresees the elimination of control authorities of a member country over the citizens or companies of another member country who wish to invest.
After adoption of Maastricht Treaty, also other countries outside the EU area adopted the principle of free turnover of capital, even in cases when some countries requested period of transitions regarding the foreign citizens' right to buy a second house or land.
Turnover of capital goods increased 11% to NOK10.8bn and turnover of energy goods by 33.3% to NOK57.0bn.
Turnover of capital goods decreased by 3.5% to NOK10.8bn, while turnover of energy goods increased by 33.4% to NOK58.4bn.
Turnover of capital goods increased 0.4% to NOK9.0bn, and turnover of energy goods increased by 9.0% to NOK49.2bn.
Turnover of capital goods stayed unchanged at NOK13.1bn while turnover of energy goods increased by 8.9% to NOK51.2bn.
Turnover of capital goods decreased by 5.3% to NOK123.3bn while turnover of energy goods increased by 12.7% to NOK570.5bn from January-December 2003 to January-December 2004.

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