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(to͝or`pän`) or


(to͝or`fän`), town and oasis (1994 est. pop. 64,300), in the Turpan depression (c.5,000 sq mi/12,950 sq km), E Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. It is an agricultural center producing cotton and cotton textiles, silk, wheat, grapes, dried fruit, and wine; crop irrigation depends on modern wells and an ancient network of underground tunnels (karez) that bring water to wellshafts in the surrounding area, mainly from the edge of the Tian Shan. Oil is produced in the area. Turpan is the chief town of the Turpan depression, the lowest point (505 ft/154 m below sea level) in China.

The depression was the center (A.D. 200–400) of a flourishing civilization in which Indian and Persian elements were combined. This civilization was later absorbed by the Uigurs, who had their capital at nearby Gaochang (9th–13th cent.). Also nearby are the ruins of the ancient city of Jiaohe and the Bezeklik cave temples. Archaeological finds made in the early 20th cent. include much Nestorian literature and the bulk of the extant Manichaean literature.

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Turpan, with its 40-degree-Celsius temperatures, glittered in golden yellow hues under the harsh sunlight shining on the city's many historical sites.
The journey to Xinjiang was undertaken via modern high-speed train from Turpan. The visit to Turpan vocational training centre was an eye-opener.
(68.) One example of a "leapfrog" appeal is found in a Tang Chinese legal document from Turpan, which recorded that in 691 the plaintiff Tang Jianjin [phrase omitted] from Tianshan [phrase omitted] District (xian [phrase omitted]) filed a plaint against defendant Gao Tianzhen [phrase omitted] the Assistant Magistrate (zhubu [phrase omitted]) of Tianshan District.
According to geographical division, Xinjiang is located in Central Asia (shown in Figure 1), and southern Xinjiang is composed of southern Akesu, Turpan, Bayin'gholin, Khotan, Kashgar, and so on.
Wang, "Methods and applications for ecological vulnerability evaluation in a hyper-arid oasis: a case study of the Turpan Oasis, China," Environmental Earth Sciences, vol.
The strata in the slope area of the Mahu Sag are well developed, and the sediments that fill the basin comprise Carboniferous, Permian (Jiamuhe Formation, Fengcheng Formation, Xiazijie Formation, Lower Urho Formation, and Upper Urho Formation), Triassic (Baikouquan Formation, Kelamayi Formation, and Baijiantan Formation), Jurassic (Badaowan Formation, Sangonghe Formation, Xishanyao Formation, and Toutunhe Formation) and Cretaceous (Turpan Formation) deposits [31] (Figure 2).
As part of his programme, Nakao visited Turpan to see one part of the recently completed Xinjiang Urban Transport and Environmental Improvement Project in the city and met with the beneficiaries of the grant-financed Turpan Women's Ethnic Minority Cultural Tourism Development Project, which was implemented in conjunction with the Xinjiang Urban Transport and Environment Improvement Project.
The new energy MG demonstration area in Turpan, Xinjiang, is currently the largest and most comprehensive application in China and is an integral project examining the use of solar energy in buildings [6].
The highest TMX was 47.7[degrees]C in Turpan. This year also smashed the historical records of heat wave duration in 51 counties.