Tutankhamen


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Tutankhamen

or

Tutenkhamon

(to͞ot'ängkä`mən, –ĕngk–), fl. c.1350 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, of the XVIII dynasty. He was the son-in-law of IkhnatonIkhnaton
or Akhenaton
[Egyptian,=Aton is satisfied], d. c.1354 B.C., king of ancient Egypt (c.1372–1354 B.C.), of the XVIII dynasty; son and successor of Amenhotep III. His name at his accession was Amenhotep IV, but he changed it to honor the god Aton.
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 and succeeded to the throne after a brief reign by Ikhnaton's successor. Under Ikhnaton the god Amon had been replaced by Aton, and the reaction in favor of Aton ended under Tutankhamen; thus, the king who had been known as Tutankhaton, changed his name. He also abandoned Ikhnaton's new capital, Akhetaton (Tell el AmarnaTell el Amarna
or Tel el Amarna
, ancient locality, Egypt, near the Nile and c.60 mi (100 km) N of Asyut. Ikhnaton's capital, Akhetaton, was in Tell el Amarna. About 400 tablets with inscriptions in Akkadian cuneiform were found there in 1887.
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), to return to ThebesThebes
, city of ancient Egypt. Luxor and Karnak now occupy parts of its site. The city developed at a very early date from a number of small villages, particularly one around modern Luxor (then called Epet), but remained relatively obscure until the rise of the Theban family
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, sacred to Amon; he restored the name of Amon, deleted from the monuments by Ikhnaton. The chief officer of state, HoremhebHoremheb
or Harmhab
, d. c.1303 B.C., king of ancient Egypt (c.1342 B.C.–c.1303 B.C.), founder of the XIX dynasty. A powerful noble under Ikhnaton, he seems to have been an army commander under the successors of that ruler, most notably under Tutankhamen.
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, controlled affairs, successfully stemming the tide of dissolution that had threatened to engulf the kingdom under Ikhnaton. The tomb of Tutankhamen was found (1922) almost intact by Howard CarterCarter, Howard,
1874–1939, English Egyptologist. He served (1891–99) with the Egyptian Exploration Fund and later helped to reorganize the antiquities administration for the Egyptian government.
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 and the earl of CarnarvonCarnarvon, George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert, 5th earl of
, 1866–1923, English Egyptologist. With Howard Carter he excavated in the Valley of the Kings in Luxor, Egypt, from 1906 to 1922.
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 in the Valley of the Kings near Luxor. Its great wealth of objects afforded a new store of knowledge on Egyptian sculpture and life of the XVIII dynasty. The contents of the tomb, including the mummy and the gold sarcophagus, are now in Cairo.

Bibliography

See studies by H. Carter and A. C. Mace (3 vol., 1923–33; abr. ed. 1972); C. Desroches-Noblecourt (tr., abr. ed. 1965); M. Carter (1972); B. Wynne (1973); E. L. Jones (1978); B. Brier, The Murder of Tutankhamen (1998).

Tutankhamen

 

(literally “Living Image of Amen” [Amon]; throne name Nebkheperure), Egyptian pharaoh of the New Kingdom (18th Dynasty); ruled from circa 1400 to circa 1392 B.C.

Tutankhamen, the son-in-law of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) and possibly his son or younger brother, came to the throne at the age of 12 under the name Tutankhaton (“Living Image of Aton”) and died before the age of 20. The power was actually in the hands of the vizier Ay and other nobles. Under Tutankhamen, the religious reforms of Akhenaton were abolished and the worship of the god Amen was restored. Tutankhamen himself gave up the name Tutankhaton and moved the pharaoh’s residence from Akhetaton back to Thebes.

Tutankhamen’s tomb was discovered in 1922. The only nearly intact tomb of a pharaoh, it contained magnificent art treasures.

REFERENCES

Carter, H. Grobnitsa Tutankhamona. Moscow, 1959. (Translated from English.)
Katsnel’son, I. S. Tutankhamon i sokrovishcha ego grobnitsy. Moscow, 1976.

Tutankhamen

, Tutankhamun
king (1361--1352 bc) of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. His tomb near Luxor, discovered in 1922, contained many material objects
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