Tuva Republic

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Tuva Republic


Tyva Republic

(both: to͞o`və, Rus. to͞ovä`, Tuvan to͞owä`), constituent republic (1990 est. pop. 366,000), 65,830 sq mi (170,500 sq km), extreme S Siberian Russia, on the Mongolian border. Kyzyl is the capital. The area is a mountain basin, c.2,000 ft (610 m) high, encircled by the Sayan and Tannu-Ola ranges. The eastern part is forested and elevated, and the west is a drier lowland. The area includes the upper course of the Yenisei River. There are many glacial lakes.

Cattle, horses, sheep, goats, reindeer, and camels are raised in the elevated steppe areas, and grain is cultivated in the irrigated lowlands. Lumbering is carried on extensively. The fur trade remains important in the northeast. Among the republic's industries are food processing; leather making; woodworking; auto repairing; and the manufacture of building materials.

Tuvans make up about 65% of the population, and Russians (who live primarily in urban areas) around 32%. Traditionally nomadic herders who engaged in supplemental hunting and agriculture, the Tuvans were encouraged by the Soviet government to adopt a sedentary mode of life, with an emphasis on collectivized agriculture. They are a Turkic-speaking people with Mongol strains; their religion is Tibetan Buddhism. The Tuvans have a rich folklore and are skilled artisans in silver, bronze, wood, and stone. They are also renowned for throat-singing, a vocal technique that enables a singer to produce two or three distinct tones simultaneously.

Controlled by the Mongols from the 13th to 18th cent., they were under Chinese rule from 1757 to 1911. During the 1911 revolution in China, czarist Russia fomented a separatist movement among the Tuvans, whose territory became nominally independent before being made a Russian protectorate in 1914. The chaos accompanying the Russian Revolution of 1917 allowed the Tuvans to again proclaim their independence; but in 1921 the Bolsheviks established a Tuvinian People's Republic, popularly called Tannu-Tuva. It was annexed by the USSR in 1944 as an autonomous region and became an autonomous republic in 1961. It was a signatory to the Mar. 31, 1992, treaty that created the Russian Federation (see RussiaRussia,
officially the Russian Federation,
Rus. Rossiya, republic (2015 est. pop. 143,888,000), 6,591,100 sq mi (17,070,949 sq km). The largest country in the world by area, Russia is bounded by Norway and Finland in the northwest; by Estonia, Latvia, Belarus,
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Tuva Republic

a constituent republic of S Russia: mountainous. Capital: Kizyl. Pop.: 305 500 (2002). Area: 170 500 sq. km (65 800 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The purpose of the research is studying of epidemiology of epilepsy and epileptic syndromes and its risk factors in population the middle Siberia (the Krasnoyarsk region and the Tuva Republic)
The Register of epilepsy and epileptic syndromes which has been introduced in practical public health services on the basis of Krasnoyarsk region's clinics and Tuva Republic clinics is created (Shnayder et al., 2010).
Criteria of inclusion in the Register: inhabitants of the Krasnoyarsk, inhabitants of BUT Zheleznogorsk of the Krasnoyarsk region, inhabitants of the Tuva Republic, adults and children who suffer from epileptic attacks at the moment of the reference in polyclinic, at the moment of hospitalization or in the anamnesis.
Forests are burning in the Trans-Baikal Territory, the Novosibirsk Region as well as the Buryatia and Tuva republics. "The most difficult situation is in the Trans-Baikal Territory.
Flames are raging in taiga and steppe zones of the Trans-Baikal Territory, the Buryatia and Tuva republics. They are battled by 2,583 people and 516 units of machinery.