Tweeddale, John Hay, 2d earl and 1st marquess of

Tweeddale, John Hay, 2d earl and 1st marquess of,

1626–97, Scottish statesman. In the English civil war he left the party of Charles I and fought for Parliament at Marston Moor (1644), but when Charles promised to support Presbyterianism, he fought for the king at Preston (1648). At the Restoration (1660), he was made a privy councilor for Scotland and advanced to president of the council in 1663. He was dismissed (1674) from office because he favored leniency toward the CovenantersCovenanters
, in Scottish history, groups of Presbyterians bound by oath to sustain each other in the defense of their religion. The first formal Covenant was signed in 1557, signaling the beginning of the Protestant effort to seize power in Scotland.
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, but he later served Charles II and James II as commissioner of the treasury and privy councilor. Supporting the accession (1688) of William III, he was again made privy councilor and a lord of the treasury (1689), high chancellor of Scotland (1692), and marquess (1694). In 1695 he conducted the inquiry into the massacre at GlencoeGlencoe
, valley of the Coe River, Highland, W Scotland. It was the scene of the massacre of the Macdonald clan (Feb., 1692) by the Campbells, under the direction of John Campbell, 1st earl of Breadalbane, and John Dalrymple, 1st earl of Stair.
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. The next year he was dismissed from the chancellorship for approving in the king's name the Darién SchemeDarién Scheme,
Scottish project to establish a colony on the Isthmus of Panama (Darién). In 1695, the Scottish Parliament passed an act that chartered a company for trading with Africa and the Indies.
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