Twenty-One Demands of Japan

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Twenty-One Demands of Japan


demands presented by Japan to China on Jan. 18, 1915, with the aim of establishing the economic and political supremacy of Japanese imperialism in China.

The Twenty-one Demands contained five groups of demands. The first group demanded that China agree to all conditions that Japan would in the future negotiate with Germany at a world conference on the question of territory “leased” by Germany in Shantung, which had been seized by the Japanese in 1914. The second group contained demands to extend the term of the “lease” of Lüshun (Port Arthur), Talien (Dal’nii), and the South Manchurian Railway to 99 years. The third group envisaged turning Hanyeiping metallurgical complex into a combined Japanese-Chinese enterprise. The fourth group of demands required that China pledge not to lease or cede any harbors, bays, or islands to any third power. The fifth group (of a general political nature) contained demands that China invite Japanese advisers, that a joint Japanese-Chinese police force be established in the most important cities, that China grant new railway concessions, and so forth. After the Japanese ultimatum in May 1915, the demands, with the exception of the general political points of the fifth group, which Japan temporarily renounced as a result of the opposition of the other imperialist powers, were accepted by the government of Yuan Shih-k’ai.


Grimm, E. D. Sb. dogovorov i drugikh dokumentov po istorii mezhdunarodnykh otnoshenii na Dal’nem Vostoke (1842–1925). Moscow, 1927.


Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia na Dal’nem Vostoke (1840–1949), 2nd ed. Moscow, 1956.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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