Twenty-Two Bolsheviks, Convocation of

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Twenty-Two Bolsheviks, Convocation of


a convocation held near Geneva from July 30 through Aug. 1 (Aug. 12–14), 1904, on the initiative of V. I. Lenin. The Convocation of Twenty-two Bolsheviks laid the foundation for the unification of party committees and organizations supporting the Leninist platform.

Among those attending the convocation were V. I. Lenin, A. A. Bogdanov, V. D. Bonch-Bruevich, V. M. Velichkina, S. I. Gusev, P. A. Krasikov, N. K. Krupskaia, I. Kh. Lalaiants, M. N. Liadov, P. N. Lepeshinskii, O. B. Lepeshinskaia, M. S. Ol’min-skii, and L. A. Fotieva. There were 19 participants in all, but the complete list of names has been lost. V. V. Vorovskii, R. S. Zemliachka, and A. V. Lunacharskii later adhered to the decisions of the convocation (hence the name of the convocation).

The convocation discussed the crisis within the RSDLP created by the disruptive dissident activity of the Mensheviks, who were attempting to impede the decisions of the Second Congress of the RSDLP (1903) and who had by 1904 taken over the central institutions of the RSDLP—the Central Committee, the editorial staff of Iskra, and the Party Council. Most of the party committees in Russia supported the Leninists, and a struggle developed with the Mensheviks and conciliators for control of the party. Preparations for the Third Party Congress were begun at Lenin’s insistence.

The convocation was one of the most important events in the struggle for the Third Congress. It adopted the appeal “To the party,” which was written by Lenin and printed on 200 handbills by the Riga committee. Included in these handbills was an analysis of the causes of the crisis within the party and suggestions for resolving the strife. The convocation noted many organizational issues that needed to be resolved by the Third Congress in order to normalize party activity.

Regional party convocations of the South, the Caucasus, and the North were convened between September and December 1904. They called for the immediate summoning of the Third Congress of the RSDLP and approved Lenin’s candidates to the Bureau of the Committees of the Majority. Under Lenin’s leadership, the bureau took the necessary measures for the convocation of the Third Congress of the RSDLP.


Lenin, V. I. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 8, pp. 402–03.
Lenin, V. I. “K partii.” Poln. sobr. soch., vol. 9.
Lenin, V. I. “Tsentral’nomy komitetu RSDRP.” Poln. sobr. soch., vol. 46.
KPSS v rezoliulsiiakh i resheniiakh s’ezdov, konferentsii i plenumov TsK, 8th ed., vol. 1. Moscow, 1970.
Istorila KPSS, vol. 1. Moscow, 1964.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.