A type II superconductor
, if its Ginzburg-Landau scalar field can produce a few percent (eg.
It argues that under these conditions the inhomogenous states appear in antiferromagnets, similar to the intermediate state of type I superconductor or the mixed state in type II superconductor
. It also discusses the measurements for simple representatives of antiferromagnets and superconductors like the transition metal based uni-axial two-sublattice antiferromagnetic insulator and superconducting dichalcogenide 2H-NbSe2, which reveal quantum oscillations of magnetostriction and its peculiarities in a peak effect regime.
About two decades ago, Podkletnov and Nieminen  experimentally discovered that a bulk sintered ceramic (type II superconductor
) disk of Y[Ba.sub.2][Cu.sub.3][O.sub.7-x] can have a moderate shielding effect against the gravitational field.
However, in a type II superconductor
, flux lines can shift in position, or "creep," interfering with supercurrent flow.
In the opposite, so-called clean limit l/[xi] [right arrow] [infinity], it is necessary to distinguish the following two cases: the Pippard or anomalous limit, defined by the inequality A < I (type I superconductor), and the London limit for which [xi] [much less than] [lambda], l (type II superconductor
Therefore in the type II superconductor
, a superconductor domain can be as small as one molecule of superconductor material or composed of a multitude of molecules (i.
Trauble, "The direct observation of individual flux lines in type II superconductors
," Physics Letters A, vol.
Abrikosov, refining his scientific constructs in the field under consideration, developed a theory according to which in normal type II superconductors
there are simultaneously normal and superconducting phases [1, 27], He carried out a detailed calculation of the structure of such a <<mixed>> state in superconductors of the second kind, which showed that the normal phase in them arises in the form of thin filaments (<<Abrikosov vortices>>).
One phenomenon, which is very interesting due to diversity of possible explanation, is related to the sign reversal of the Hall response in the mixed sate of type II superconductors
. This anomaly is not an exclusive characteristic of the HTSC.
Sousa, "Mixed-state thermal conductivity of type II superconductors
," Journal of Low Temperature Physics, vol.
However, in Type II superconductors
, including the recently discovered high-temperature compounds, the materials actually retain an internal magnetic field if the external field is greater than a certain value.
To describe the high-[T.sub.c] superconductor state, the determination of the most important parameters is fundamental, in particular for type II superconductors
; the behavior of the upper critical field [H.sub.c2] is significant.