But a far more accepted example of rebellion against Zeus was the myth of Typhoeus, or Typhon.
In ancient Rome, the defeat of Typhoeus had been associated with Athena, as if Typhoeus had fought against Jove with the other Giants.
29-34) Through Virgil, Dante would have had additional reason to associate Typhoeus with Pallas and with the battle of the gods and Giants.
[8, 68, 69]) is darkened not by the struggles of Typhoeus, but by
Ovid, the island of Sicily was heaped on Typhoeus who had dared to
struggles to regain his liberty.(11) Typhoeus's chthonic struggles
The battle with Typhoeus is even more strongly configured as a visual battle, a battle of the gazes.
As with Hector and Achilles in the Iliad and countless other heroes, anger, violence, and destructiveness are figured as fire in the eyes; and just as this image often borders on the literal, expressing and making sublime the visual power of the hero, so Typhoeus becomes literally fiery.
These few lines also represent the narrator intervening to draw the episode into the narrative frame of the whole poem: just as Zeus's relationship with Metis might have produced his own generational usurper, Typhoeus too is figured as a potential Zeus, who might move from monster to god and take over the cosmos.
In the Dionysiaca, Typhoeus, who revels in fantasies of future control and mastery of the universe, would represent the less evolved, more dominant, and power-focused aspect of the ruler archetype.
Besides the cosmic upheaval induced by Typhoeus in Books 1 and 2, we may adduce 3.202-19 (an unexplained catastrophic flood), 6.230-388 (a consequence of the failure of Zagreus's mirror-gazing narcissism), 13.522-38 (another unexplained flood), 38.318-409 (Phaethon's dizzy drive across the heavens), and 48.31-89 (Dionysus versus the Giants).
(51.) With the challenge of Typhoeus turned back in Book 2, cultural progress continues; that progress is preserved by Dionysus's victory over the Giants in Book 48.