In ancient Rome, the defeat of Typhoeus had been associated with Athena, as if Typhoeus had fought against Jove with the other Giants.
Through Virgil, Dante would have had additional reason to associate Typhoeus with Pallas and with the battle of the gods and Giants.
When Earth asks her new-bom Giants to battle the gods, she says, "rapiat fulmen sceptrumque Typhoeus" ["Let Typhoeus seize the thunderbolt and the sceptre'] (Gigant.
Ceres then mentions a catalog of monsters, including Typhoeus and Briareos:
Ovid, the island of Sicily was heaped on Typhoeus who had dared to
land of Sicily, looking to see what damage the imprisoned Typhoeus has
Typhoeus has actually done none, but in another moment, Eros
As with Hector and Achilles in the Iliad and countless other heroes, anger, violence, and destructiveness are figured as fire in the eyes; and just as this image often borders on the literal, expressing and making sublime the visual power of the hero, so Typhoeus becomes literally fiery.
These few lines also represent the narrator intervening to draw the episode into the narrative frame of the whole poem: just as Zeus's relationship with Metis might have produced his own generational usurper, Typhoeus too is figured as a potential Zeus, who might move from monster to god and take over the cosmos.
West (1966, 384) points out that Typhoeus is represented both as a god (824, 849, 859) and as not one (871).
Besides the cosmic upheaval induced by Typhoeus in Books 1 and 2, we may adduce 3.
With the challenge of Typhoeus turned back in Book 2, cultural progress continues; that progress is preserved by Dionysus's victory over the Giants in Book 48.