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a book hand used in ancient Slavonic manuscripts; it was written in the Cyrillic alphabet with letters of a precise, geometric form. There were different varieties of ustav in different epochs and areas. The oldest extant Cyrillic texts of the East and South Slavs were written in ustav; these included the East Slavic Ostromir Gospel, Arkhangel’sk Gospel, and Mstislav Charter and the South Slavic Savvina Kniga, Codex Suprasliensis, and Enino Apostle. Ustav was originally used for religious service books and edifying books as well as for gramoty (letters and official documents).

In Old Russian manuscripts of the 11th and 12th centuries the ustav book hand, written on parchment, was severe and elegant in form. The lines were straight and the letters symmetrical and evenly spaced. In the 13th century some of the letters acquired new shapes: the tops of the letters B(V), K, and Ж (Zh) became shorter and the crossbars of the letters N, H, Ustav, ѥ, and Ѥ(Iu) were raised. The number of abbreviations with tituli and long letter (ascending or descending) increased. In the 14th century a new type of ustav appeared, based on the innovations of the preceding century; its letters were slightly higher and narrower.

Ustav was the predominant book hand in Old Russia until the late 14th and early 15th centuries; beginning in the 15th century it was replaced by poluustav. In South Slavic Cyrillic texts the ustav letters often sloped to the right, variant forms of certain letters were used, and older forms of the letters were retained longer.

The book hand of the oldest Slavonic manuscripts written in Glagolitic—the Kiev Fragments, Codex Zographensis, and Codex Marianus—is also considered to be ustav. In Russian writings on Greek paleography the uncial book hand with its vertical, separated letters is called ustav. The script of the Russian beresto writings (letters and documents written on birchbark) is also considered to be a type of ustav. The Soviet philologist E. F. Karskii used the term “new ustav” to refer to the painstaking, formal handwriting used in richly illuminated and bound books of the 15th to 17th centuries; these were normally made not with parchment but paper.


Lavrov, P. A. Paleograficheskoe obozrenie kirillovskogo pis’ma u iuzhnykh slavian. Petrograd, 1914–16.
Karskii, E. F. Slavianskaia kirillovskaia paleografiia. Leningrad, 1928.
Cherepnin, L. V. Russkaia paleografiia. Moscow, 1956. (Contains bibliography.)
Tikhomirov, M. N., and A. V. Murav’ev. Russikaia paleografiia. Moscow, 1966.
Shchepkin, V. N. Russkaia paleografiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1967.


References in periodicals archive ?
The topics include the Komnenoi and Constantinople before the building of the Pantokrator Complex, Byzantine officials in the typikon of the Monastery of Christ Pantokrator in Constantinople, the monastery in the narratives of Western travelers, feasts in the monastery, and the testimony of Nikolaos Kataphloron on Empress Piroska-Eirene's collaborators in the foundation of the Pantokrator Monastery.
The Typikon of the Xenon of Theotokou of the Evergetidos in Constantinople (7th c AD) notes: "We must care about the food, the drinking and the other needs of the patients .
In the Typikon of Theotokou Eleousas in Stroubitsa of Skopia (11th c AD), the following words are found: "You should console the needy and treat the patients at your best.
The typikon (monastic rule) for the monastery mandated for the Eleousa church a large number of clergy, whose duties included celebrating for the people of the city a weekly Friday night vigil, replete with a procession of banners into the church.
So, according to the typikon, people were needed to care for a monastic church that was open to the public on a regular basis, in order to offer visitors appropriate hospitality, and especially to ensure order during what was obviously a popular and well-attended weekly vigil.
However, there are numerous references to these women in a typikon (47) (liturgical rule) of the Church of Jerusalem, contained in a twelfth-century manuscript that apparently is a copy of an earlier work from the late ninth or early tenth century.
Their liturgical functions are quite clearly spelled out in the Jerusalem typikon, and largely mirror, in a stylized and liturgical fashion, the activities of the biblical myrrhbearing women.
However, it is likely that their inclusion should be inferred since, at the end of the liturgy, the typikon mentions that the myrrhbearers remained behind and reentered the Holy Sepulcher in order to cense and anoint it.
The typikon (liturgical rule or manual) describing these rites, "[TEX NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.
He reviews the background of the Byzantine rite in general terms, and its growth and osmosis between the Studite and Sabas usage, and the emergence of the Typikon.
If that is so, his remarks seem to apply not only to the Italian manuscripts but also to the tenth-century typikon of St Sophia, written at least 400 years earlier than Symeon, which in describing the openings of several Vespers places the word [Greek Text Omitted] between Psalms 85 and 140.
This is particularly apparent in the performance of the third antiphon as it was prescribed in the Sicilian typikon, Vatican gr.