typography

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typography

(tīpŏg`rəfē), the art of printingprinting,
means of producing reproductions of written material or images in multiple copies. There are four traditional types of printing: relief printing (with which this article is mainly concerned), intaglio, lithography, and screen process printing.
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 from movable type. The term typographer is today virtually synonymous with a master printer skilled in the techniques of type and paper stock selection, ornamentation, and composition. Before the development of typography, related arts flourished for centuries. Scribes in ancient Egypt and the Middle East perfected the craft of writing on papyrus scrolls and clay tablets. Hellenistic and Roman makers of books developed the art, which reached a peak of aesthetic perfection in the exquisite illuminated manuscriptsmanuscript,
a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C.
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 of the Middle Ages (see illuminationillumination,
in art, decoration of manuscripts and books with colored, gilded pictures, often referred to as miniatures (see miniature painting); historiated and decorated initials; and ornamental border designs.
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, in art). The first European typographers imitated these manuscripts, but the introduction of metal types in the 15th cent. brought about a radical transformation. Crisp and uncompromising, metal types imposed new standards of composition. A highly conservative art, modern typography adheres closely to tradition. Since legibility is of the utmost importance, the forms that print most legibly are retained. Now created on computers, new typographic styles (type faces) continue to develop, to suit myriad uses in the design of advertisements, posters, newspapers, greeting cards, almanacs, and fine books. For a list of notable type designers, see typetype,
for printing, was invented in China (c.1040), using woodblocks. Related devices, such as seals and stamps for making impressions in clay, had been used in ancient times in Babylon and elsewhere.
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.

Bibliography

See E. Gill, An Essay on Typography (1931, reprint 1988); J. R. Biggs, Basic Typography (1969); W. Chappell, A Short History of the Printed Word (1980); P. Baines and A. Haslam, Type and Typography (2002); J. Felici, The Complete Manual of Typography (2002); S. Fussel, ed., Bodoni: Manual of Typography (new ed. 2010). See also bibliography under typetype,
for printing, was invented in China (c.1040), using woodblocks. Related devices, such as seals and stamps for making impressions in clay, had been used in ancient times in Babylon and elsewhere.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

typography

[tī′päg·rə·fē]
(graphic arts)
The techniques involved in letterpress printing, including style, arrangements, and appearance of the printed matter.

typography

The layout of text on a printed page, sign or other object. It refers to the style, size and layout of the text characters (fonts). The oldest typographic tool ever discovered was the Phaistos Disc, a bronze disc with raised Greek characters. Its date of origin is disputed by the experts; from as far back as 1400 B.C. to as "recent" as the 1300s A.D. See imagesetter and font.
References in periodicals archive ?
The two previous installments looked into the illustrations of Egyptian designer Hilmi Al-Tuni and Lebanese typographer Nasri Khattar.
Besides Nigrin, several other typographers published music in Rudolfine Prague, yet for the most part it concerned individual opuses.
This is the first known strike by journalists in Australia; it was supported by typographers who refused to set copy (Journalist, 24 April 1931).
Dubai "There aren't enough Arabic typefaces," said typographer Tarek Atrissi.
However, illiteracy can still be noticed among typographers, journalist and designers, because of the 'fear' of characters with diacritics.
Defying the flat, two-dimensional type we see every day, designers Jeanette Abbink and Emily CM Anderson have compiled a sleek contemporary collection of three-dimensional type, showcasing the work of over 100 international designers, typographers and artists.
So innovative and so skilled in the application of good design are these latter typographers, the Museum of Modern Art in New York City is now honoring them with an exhibit devoted solely to their work.
Our agreements with the Fleet, Mailers, Pressmen, Platemakers, Typographers and Guild are major achievements.
The Minneapolis paper still has to make a deal with the paper's truck drivers; it has already cut new contracts with press workers, mailers and typographers.
In general, type revivals are undertaken now not because typographers wish to create modern portraits of antiquarian books, but instead because users of type have no need to know the context of type revivals.
With the spread of personal computers in the late 1980s and 1990s, typographers and writers found themselves using similar tools, and their practice began to reconverge.
Leonard Jay (1888-1963) a teacher par excellence who transformed the outlook of a whole generation of typographers who made his School of Printing without equal in Britain - or possibly any other country - and exercised a worldwide influence on printing education.