Tyramine


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tyramine

[′tī·rə‚mēn]
(pharmacology)
HOC6H4CH2CH2NH2 A crystalline compound with a melting point of 164-165°C; soluble in water and boiling alcohol; used in medicine as an adrenergic drug. Also known as tyrosamine.

Tyramine

 

(4-hydroxyphenylethylamine; HOC6H4CH2CH2NH2), an organic substance; one of the biogenic amines.

Tyramine is found in ergot, decaying tissues, and cheese. A toxic substance, tyramine is physiologically active: because of its vasoconstrictor effect, it increases blood pressure and influences processes of excitation and inhibition in the nervous system. It is formed from the amino acid tyrosine under the action of bacterial decarboxylases, particularly in the case of putrefactive processes in the intestines of humans and other mammals. Excess tyramine in the body is rendered harmless through oxidation by monoamine oxidase.

REFERENCE

Gorkin, V. Z. “Fermentativnoe dezaminirovanie biogennykh aminov.” In Khimicheskie faktory reguliatsii aktivnosti i biosinteza fermentov. Moscow, 1969.
References in periodicals archive ?
Therefore, the reasons for the tyramine can kill the insect may be the tyramine can restrain insects' nerves, blood circulation and digestive activity when the concentration of tyramine increased in DDT poisoned insects' hemolymph.
Furthermore, another important parameter for the occurrence of these natural contaminants is pH, which was significantly correlated with putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine.
Tyramine hydrochloride, benzylamine hydrochloride, amine oxidase inhibitors, quercetin, trans-resveratrol, and other reagents were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Saint-Quentin-Fallavier, France), except otherwise specified.
The same company also supplied five bioactive amine standards: putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD), histamine (HIM), tyramine (TYM) and tryptamine (TRM).
Evidence of horizontal transfer as origin of strain to strain variation of the tyramine production trait in Lactobacillus brevis.
In the presence of MAOIs, however, tyramine is able to enter the circulation and act on peripheral nerve terminals to acutely displace noradrenaline and other neurotransmitters.
The enzyme was found to oxidize tyramine and dopamine at a similar rate, but other monoamines, diamines and polyamines were not oxidized at all.
This enzyme converts the amino acid tyrosine into the metabolite tyramine which stimulates the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine from adrenergic nerve terminals while blocking the neurotransmitters' reuptake.
These include aged cheeses, concentrated yeast extracts, sauerkraut, broad bean pods, tap beers (though other alcoholic beverages "might be safe if consumed in moderation"), some aged meats, which "contain relatively high levels of tyramine and require closer scrutiny," pickled fish, and concomitant serotonergic antidepressants.
Reactions can be triggered by naturally occurring ingredients in beer and wine, including barley, ethanol, grapes, histamine, hops, malt, oats, tryptamine, tyramine, wheat, and yeast.