Therefore, the reasons for the tyramine
can kill the insect may be the tyramine
can restrain insects' nerves, blood circulation and digestive activity when the concentration of tyramine
increased in DDT poisoned insects' hemolymph.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: a review concerning dietary tyramine
and drug interactions.
Furthermore, another important parameter for the occurrence of these natural contaminants is pH, which was significantly correlated with putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine
hydrochloride, benzylamine hydrochloride, amine oxidase inhibitors, quercetin, trans-resveratrol, and other reagents were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Saint-Quentin-Fallavier, France), except otherwise specified.
ND ND ND Phenylethylamine ND ND ND Putrescine ND 0.
The same company also supplied five bioactive amine standards: putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD), histamine (HIM), tyramine
(TYM) and tryptamine (TRM).
Evidence of horizontal transfer as origin of strain to strain variation of the tyramine
production trait in Lactobacillus brevis.
In the presence of MAOIs, however, tyramine
is able to enter the circulation and act on peripheral nerve terminals to acutely displace noradrenaline and other neurotransmitters.
The enzyme was found to oxidize tyramine
and dopamine at a similar rate, but other monoamines, diamines and polyamines were not oxidized at all.
This enzyme converts the amino acid tyrosine into the metabolite tyramine
which stimulates the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine from adrenergic nerve terminals while blocking the neurotransmitters' reuptake.
These include aged cheeses, concentrated yeast extracts, sauerkraut, broad bean pods, tap beers (though other alcoholic beverages "might be safe if consumed in moderation"), some aged meats, which "contain relatively high levels of tyramine
and require closer scrutiny," pickled fish, and concomitant serotonergic antidepressants.
Reactions can be triggered by naturally occurring ingredients in beer and wine, including barley, ethanol, grapes, histamine, hops, malt, oats, tryptamine, tyramine
, wheat, and yeast.