Tyrian Purple


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Tyrian Purple

 

a natural dye of a reddish purple color. Ty-rian purple is obtained from glands of marine gastropod mollusks known as purple snails. It may be chemically derived from natural indigo (6,6’-dibromindigo). The use of Tyrian purple for dyeing dates back to 1600 B.C. Its discovery is attributed to the Phoenicians, and its use was mentioned in ancient Egyptian papyruses, in the writings of Pliny the Elder, and in other sources. Tyrian purple was extracted from the gastropod Murex brandaris echinus. In ancient Rome the wearing of purple garments was a mark of high office.

References in periodicals archive ?
2011), as is the case for some of the bioactive brominated indole precursors of Tyrian purple (Benkendorff 2013).
The biosynthetic origin of Tyrian purple which has been exclusively isolated from Muricidae molluscs is not currently known.
The success of Tyrian Purple as a commercial venture led chemists across Europe to focus on this market in the hope of making their own fortunes.
Alexander the Great (when giving imperial audiences as emperor of the Macedonian Empire), the emperors of the Seleucid Empire, and the kings of Ptolemaic Egypt wore Tyrian purple.
The imperial robes of Roman emperors were Tyrian purple trimmed in gold thread, while the badge of office for a Roman Senator was a stripe of Tyrian purple on a white toga.
The hypobranchial gland secretes a purple pigment (Tyrian Purple) that can be obtained without hurting the animals (Rios-Jara et al.
The effect of periodically "milking" to obtain Tyrian Purple from Plicopurpura pansa (Gould, 1853) on the frequency of expulsion and mortality.
pansa, in comparison with that of other muricids, is that it ejects its dye-producing liquid in such large quantity, that there is no need to kill the animal to obtain the "Tyrian Purple." Furthermore, the hypobranchial gland is so active that the snails can be "milked" periodically without harming the animals (Rios-Jara et al.
For the scientific world it was therefore a big surprise when in 1685 William Cole reported that the contents of the hypobranchial gland of the muricid Nucella lapillus could directly be applied to linen and after a series of chemical reactions in the presence of light and oxygen "Tyrian purple" is formed (Cole 1685).
The secretion contains, besides mucus and biologically active compounds, minute amounts of chromogens, which develop enzymatically and under the influence of light and oxygen into a purple pigment known as "Tyrian purple," "Royal purple," or "Shellfish purple." Throughout history, humans have used the pigment for various purposes.