Tyrol

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Tyrol

(tĭr`ŏl, tīrōl`), Ger. Tirol, region and province (1991 pop. 631,410), 4,882 sq mi (12,644 sq km), W Austria. InnsbruckInnsbruck
, city (1991 pop. 118,112), capital of Tyrol prov., SW Austria, on the Inn River. A famous summer and winter tourist center, it is also an industrial, commercial, and transport center.
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 is the capital. The southern section of the historic region are now in Italy. Bordering on Germany in the north and on Italy and Switzerland in the south, it is an almost wholly Alpine region, traversed by the Inn River. The main part of the province is separated from the fertile East Tyrol (Ger. Osttirol) by a corridor belonging partly to Italy and partly to Salzburg prov., Austria. The Tyrolean Alps, which culminate in the Ötztal AlpsÖtztal Alps
, mountain group, in the Tyrol, W Austria, S of the Inn River and extending into northern Italy. It rises to 12,380 ft (3,773 m) in the Wildspitze, the highest peak in the Tyrol. The village of Obergurgl is a skiing resort and a starting point for mountain climbing.
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, are famed for their idyllic beauty and attract many tourists, thus supplementing income from the exploitation of the province's limited natural resources. Tourist centers include Kitzbühel, Kufstein, Sankt Anton, and Zell am See. Pasture farming, cattle raising, forestry, and dairy farming are the main occupations in the rural areas. Some industry is located at Innsbruck, Landeck, and Kufstein, including chemical, electrochemical, and pharmaceutical manufactures. The saltworks near Solbad Hall are an important source of revenue. The now little-worked silver and copper mines of Tyrol, known since antiquity, and its strategic position commanding the Brenner Pass across the Alps gave the region a fairly important role in European history.

The Tyrol was inhabited by Rhaetic tribes when it was conquered (15 B.C.) by the Romans. It was invaded (6th cent. A.D.) by Teutonic tribes, the Baiovarii and the Lombards, and later by the Franks, who held all Tyrol by the 8th cent. Large parts of S Tyrol (now in Italy) were ruled from the 11th cent. to 1802–3 by the bishops of TrentTrent,
Ital. Trento, Latin Tridentum, city (1991 pop. 101,545), capital of Trentino–Alto Adige and of Trent prov., N Italy, on the Adige River and on the road to the Brenner Pass. It is an industrial and tourist center.
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 and by the bishops of Brixen (see BressanoneBressanone
, Ger. Brixen, town (1991 pop. 16,992), Trentino–Alto Adige, N Italy, on the Brenner Road, and at the confluence of the Isarco and Rienza rivers. Bressanone and its surrounding territory were ruled by prince-bishops from the 11th cent.
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). The two bishoprics were secularized and fell to Austria in consequence of the Peace of Lunéville (1801) between France and Austria. The northern section (constituting the present Tyrol), first divided into petty counties, was united under the counts of Tyrol and passed, with the abdication (1363) of Margaret MaultaschMargaret Maultasch
[Ger.,=pocket mouth], 1318–69, countess of Tyrol, called the Ugly Duchess, probably because of her unattractive appearance, especially her mouth.
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, to Austria and the Hapsburgs.

In 1805 the Treaty of Pressburg awarded all Tyrol to Napoleon's ally, Bavaria, but when war broke out (1809) between France and Austria the Tyrolean peasants, led heroically by Andreas HoferHofer, Andreas
, 1767–1810, Austrian patriot; son of a Tyrolean innkeeper. After its defeat by Napoleon I in 1805 Austria was forced to cede the Tyrol to France's ally Bavaria.
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, rose in revolt and stubbornly defied the French and Bavarian troops. In 1810, Napoleon, at variance with Maximilian I of Bavaria, attached most of S Tyrol to Italy. Both parts were restored (1815) to Austria by the Congress of Vienna. The Treaty of Saint-Germain (1919) awarded S Tyrol (the predominantly German-speaking province of Bolzano and the predominantly Italian-speaking province of Trento) to Italy. The ruthless Italianization policy of the Fascist government created much unrest and friction in the period between the two World Wars, and the situation remained unsettled until the 1970s (see Trentino–Alto AdigeTrentino–Alto Adige
, region (1991 est. pop. 890,360), 5,256 sq mi (13,613 sq km), N Italy, bordering on Switzerland in the northwest and on Austria in the north. From 1919 to 1947 it was called Venezia Tridentina. Trent (Ital. Trento) is the capital of the region.
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). The Italian constitution of 1947 gave South Tyrol the status of an autonomous region, with full protection of minority rights, but real autonomy was not achieved until 1972.

Tyrol

, Tirol
a mountainous state of W Austria: passed to the Hapsburgs in 1363; S part transferred to Italy in 1919. Capital: Innsbruck. Pop.: 683 317 (2003 est.). Area: 12 648 sq. km (4883 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
Data from tropical Mount Haleakala (Maui, Hawaii) and from the middle-latitude Tyrolian Alps (Austria) were used to test the predicted [E.
Bacon's are crispy potato nuggets with Tyrolian ham made in four different shapes; Potato Dogs is a sausage in a potato coating; and Breakfasters is scrambled egg covered in potato with bacon.
Yes, there are truly Tyrolian aspects of the town, some men do wear leather trousers and some of the women might look more in place with a tray of pretzels, but little is forced.
I worked in parish councils and parish institutions, and also as head of the Tyrolian council of lay people, and I found [under Stecher] that lay people's opinions were welcome, and we initiated a number of actions," Thurner said.
Dressed in a miniature pair of traditional Bavarian lederhosen and topped with a feathered Tyrolian cap, 3-year-old Bryan Collins kicked up his heels to German Bavarian music Sunday morning at the annual Oktoberfest at Conejo Creek Park.
The actual recipes detailed are Bratwurst Thuringian style, Bratwurst Munich style, Bratwurst Nuremberg style, French style bratwurst, Basic meat mix 1, Wieners/frankfurters, Knockwurst with herbs, Grillsausage, Jagdwurst with herbs, Pepperlyoner, Spiced cold cuts, All-beef bologna, All-beef jagdwurst, Meat loaf, Pizza loaf, Basic meat mix 2, Cabanossi, Alpine smoked sausage, Tyrolian ham sausage, Smoked polish sausage, Debrecziner, Spicy Hungarian sausage, German cold cut in aspic, Napoli cold cut in aspic, French pate, Ragouts/stir fry's, Greek specialities, Steaks and roasts, Preseasoned steaks and marinated grill cuts, and Kebab specialities.
Reeves commented that Moser's expertise in both physiology and chronobiology have led to the designing experiments utilized in the international space program to measure cardiovascular variables of cosmonauts in outer space, as well as providing a medical examination of The Tyrolian Ice Man, Europe's oldest (5,200 years) mummified human body.