Tisza(redirected from Tysa)
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(also Tisa), a river in the USSR, Hungary, and Yugoslavia and partly along the border between the USSR and Rumania as well as between Hungary and Czechoslovakia; the largest left tributary of the Danube. The Tisza is 966 km long and drains an area of 157,100 sq km, of which 46 percent is in Rumania and 30 percent in Hungary. Rising in the Eastern Carpathians, the river flows for most of its course along the Middle Danube Plain. Its chief tributaries, joining it on the left, are the Szamos, Körös, and Mureş.
The Tisza is fed by snow and rain; the high-water period is in March and April, with occasional summer rain freshets; the winter discharge is insignificant. The freeze-up period varies in duration, lasting from one to 2½ months in cold winters. The mean flow rate along the river’s lower course, near Senta in Yugoslavia, is 810 cu m per sec. Severe flooding sometimes occurs in the Tisza River basin; the latest was in 1970. Water from the Tisza and from its tributaries is widely used for irrigation. In Hungary, the hydroengineering complexes of Tiszalok and Kiskóre (with a reservoir approximately 30 km long) were built on the Tisza. Numerous irrigation canals extend from the river into the Alfóld, or Great Hungarian Lowland. The river is navigable as far as Tisza-karád, in Hungary; in its upper reaches, it is used for floating timber. Cities located on the Tisza include Khust in the USSR and Tiszafüred, Szolnok, and Szeged in Hungary.
A. P. MURANOV