Bureau of Indian Affairs

(redirected from U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs)

Indian Affairs, Bureau of,

created (1824) in the U.S. War Dept. and transferred (1849) to the U.S. Dept. of the Interior. The War Dept. managed Native American affairs after 1789, but a separate bureau was not set up for many years. It had jurisdiction over trade with Native Americans, their removal to the West, their protection from exploitation, and their concentration on reservations. Because of wide dissatisfaction in the West over army administration of Native American affairs, the responsibility was given to the Dept. of the Interior and reorganized. The new bureau was no more successful than its predecessor in preventing wars with Native Americans or in protecting their rights. The Bureau of Indian Affairs instead evolved primarily into a land-administering agency, a process speeded up by the Dawes Act of 1887, the Burke Act of 1906, and the Wheeler-Howard Act of 1934, now acting as trustee over Native American lands and funds. The bureau also promotes agricultural and economic development, provides a health program, social services, Native American schools, and reclamation projects for Alaska Natives and Native Americans in the United States. The Bureau of Indian Affairs has also been officially called the Office of Indian Affairs and the Indian Service. Beginning in the early 1970s, Native American civil-rights groups, such as the American Indian MovementAmerican Indian Movement
(AIM), Native American civil-rights activist organization, founded in 1968 to encourage self-determination among Native Americans and to establish international recognition of their treaty rights.
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, began actively protesting their dissatisfaction with the bureau. In 1997 the bureau was accused by Interior Dept. auditors of mismanaging money owed to Native American tribes and individuals. A lawsuit on the issue, dating to 1996, was tentatively settled in 2009 for $3.4 billion (mainly for compensation and fractionated land ownership consolidation). Since 2011 a number of tribes have also won or settled claims resulting from alleged mismanagement, with compensation totaling about $1.9 billion.
References in periodicals archive ?
Patrick reached the revised agreement with the Mashpee in March after an earlier agreement was approved by the Legislature only to be rejected by the U.
An expansion of casino gambling raises concerns such as increased crime and alcohol, drug and gambling abuse, he said Monday in letters to the U.
However, the focus on tribes that receive services from the U.
Johnson, "Report of School at Morris, Minnesota," in Annual Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs (ARCIA) (Washington, DC: U.
Des Jardins details the acceptance by independent agencies of the topics and methodologies employed by women, citing Annie Abel's historical research on Native Americans for the U.
Until the late 1970s, many Navajo children attended strict boarding schools run by the U.
This affirmative action program has continued to this day, taking the more recent form of allowing cattle ranchers and mining interests to have cheap and easy access to stolen Native land, and even to reservation land, by means of leases and one-sided contracts engineered by the U.
In 2001, the tribe took a major step toward realizing its plans when it asked the U.
The struggle was exacerbated last year, when the school's funding from the U.
National Park Service, National Parks Conservation Association, North Carolina Department of Environmental and Natural Resources, North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission, The Nature Conservancy's Tennessee Chapter, Tennessee Clean Water Network, Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, Town of Lake Santeetlah, Town of Robbinsville, U.
The agreement establishes a framework for cooperation with the County and recites the approval by the U.