USA PATRIOT Act

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USA PATRIOT Act

[Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorists], 2001, U.S. federal law intended to give federal authorities increased abilities to combat international and domestic terrorism. Quickly enacted with little opposition in the aftermath of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade CenterWorld Trade Center,
former building complex in lower Manhattan, New York City, consisting of seven buildings and a shopping concourse on a 16-acre (6.5-hectare) site; it was destroyed by a terrorist attack on Sept. 11, 2001.
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 and PentagonPentagon, the,
building accommodating the U.S. Dept. of Defense. Located in Arlington, Va., across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., the Pentagon is a vast five-sided building designed by Los Angeles architect G. Edwin Bergstrom.
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, the USA PATRIOT Act primarily enlarged the powers of federal law-enforcement and intelligence-gathering agencies when dealing with terror crimes, but sections of the extensive bill also apply to criminal acts generally. The number of terror-related offenses was also increased, and reporting requirements, crimes, and penalties associated with money laundering were expanded.

Civil libertarians, librarians, and others have protested changes made by the act that have the potential to lead to law-enforcement abuses, including reduced judicial oversight of wiretaps, expanded law-enforcement access to records held by third-party businesses and organizations, and an ambiguously broadened definition of providing material support to terrorists. Such concerns have been partly prompted by the fact that the USA PATRIOT Act was designed in part to reduce restrictions enacted in response to abuses of government power associated with Watergate, anti–Vietnam War protesters, civil-rights groups, and the like.

These worries contributed to the vocal opposition in 2003 to the Bush administration's draft Domestic Security Enhancement Act, an expansion of the USA PATRIOT Act that ultimately was not submitted to Congress. Similarly, the renewal of those sections of the act slated to expire at the end of 2005 became contentious enough that opponents in the Senate were able to stall legislation to make them permanent, but after some modifications were made to the act in 2006, the act was renewed and most sections became permanent.

Leaks in 2013 by Edward SnowdenSnowden, Edward Joseph,
1983–, American computer systems administrator and antigovernment activist, b. Elizabeth City, N.C. Snowden worked for the Central Intelligence Agency from 2007 and then (2009) for private contractors and for the National Security Agency.
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 revealed that the act had been used to authorize the mass collection of telecommunications records by the National Security Agency; a federal appeals court ruled (2015) that such data collection with respect to domestic telephone calls was not permitted by the law. The USA FREEDOM Act (Uniting and Strengthening America by Fulfilling Rights and Ending Eavesdropping, Dragnet-collection and Online Monitoring; 2015) subsequently altered that section of the USA PATRIOT Act, ending mass data collection by the NSA, and requiring a court order to review such records held by telecommunications companies. Other aspects of the law have been challenged in the courts, with varying results.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
References in periodicals archive ?
Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, December 26, 2017 --(PR.com)-- UCG Founder and President, Jim Kandrac explains, "It is important to our Canadian clients that they retain their data in Canada, due to the U.S. Patriot Act. As we continue to grow in Canada we want to do everything we can to respect that."
The act requires major retailers and manufacturers doing business in California, with global receipts in excess of $100 million, to disclose their "efforts to eradicate slavery and trafficking in their direct supply chains for tangible goods offered for sale." By marrying aspects of Proposition 65 and Title III of the U.S. Patriot Act, CA-TISCA is indeed unique-and could prove problematic.
The U.S. PATRIOT Act that followed had implications for surveillance of voice, e-mail, and web records as well as those of banks, libraries, and others.
The U.S. Patriot Act, however, allows surveillance orders to be issued by a special, secret court, he said.
A correspondent account is defined by the U.S. Patriot Act as "any account established for a foreign financial institution to receive deposits from, or to make payments or other disbursements on behalf of, the financial institution, or to handle other financial transaction related to such foreign financial institution."
In October 2001, the U.S. Patriot Act was signed into law allowing the attorney general to detain non-citizens suspected of terrorism without a warrant, and authorized new surveillance guidelines for U.S.
that most Americans would be "stunned" to hear how the U.S. Patriot Act laws are interpreted by the government in secret to justify domestic spying.
Google's transparency reports do not include requests for user data made by the government under the U.S. Patriot Act, theForeign Intelligence Surveillance Amendment Actor through the use of National Security Letters (NSLs).
Some European vendors capitalise on these worries by stating their non-compliance with the U.S. Patriot Act in their marketing campaigns.
This is intended to address the data privacy concerns of EU users related to the U.S. PATRIOT Act.
The Rapaport Group operates in compliance with the U.S. Patriot Act and OFAC regulations and does not trade in diamonds from Marange, Zimbabwe.
Army Corps of Engineers began rejecting such requests as part of a U.S. Patriot Act stipulation.

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