When considering the functional standpoint based on the interpretation of factors involved, meat color in chickens appears to be associated with chromosomal DNA stability, functions of ubiquitylation
(UBC) and quality and quantity of various subtypes of collagen in muscle.
Ho, "Computational identification of ubiquitylation
sites from protein sequences," BMC bioinformatics, vol.
Ciechanover, "The predator becomes the prey: regulating the ubiquitin system by ubiquitylation
and degradation," Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol.
A recent study showed that the UBE2Ds, together with RNF138, accumulate at damaged-DNA sites and promote DNA repair via promoting CtIP ubiquitylation
and accrual .
The following primary antibodies were used: sheep polyclonal antiCDKL5 (1:1000, MRC Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation
Unit--University of Dundee, UK), rabbit polyclonal anti-GAPDH (1 : 5000, Sigma-Aldrich), mouse monoclonal [beta]-catenin (1: 1000, BD Transduction Laboratories), rabbit polyclonal anti-phospho-AKT (Ser473) (1: 1000), rabbit polyclonal anti-AKT (1: 1000), rabbit polyclonal anti-phospho-ERK1/2 (1 : 1000), mouse monoclonal anti-ERK1/2 (1 : 1000), and rabbit polyclonal anti-phospho-MSK1 (Thr 581) (1: 1000, Cell Signaling Technology).
Zhou et al., "Inhibition of p-I[kappa]B[alpha] ubiquitylation
by autophagy-related gene 7 to regulate inflammatory responses to bacterial infection," The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.
Tau is also extensively modified posttranslationally and has been reported to be modified by phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation, glycation, deamidation, isomerization, nitration, methylation, ubiquitylation
, sumoylation, and truncation. The largest tau isoform (tau 441) can be phosphorylated at numerous serine/threonine and tyrosine residues. Ser/thr motifs preceding a proline residue are phosphorylated by proline-directed protein kinases (PDPKs) such as glycogen synthase kinase-3[sz] (GSK-3[sz]), cyclin-dependent-like kinase-5 (CDK5), and dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A.
in apoptosis: a post-translational modification at the edge of life and death.
Nrf2, which is regarded as a redox-sensitive prosurvival transcription factor, is maintained at a very low level through Keap1-mediated ubiquitylation
and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation.
Gygi et al., "During muscle atrophy, thick, but not thin, filament components are degraded by MuRF1-dependent ubiquitylation
," Journal of Cell Biology, vol.
Oxley et al., "RYBP-PRC1 complexes mediate H2A ubiquitylation
at polycomb target sites independently of PRC2 and H3K27me3," Cell, vol.
(2006) Conjugation to Nedd8 instigates ubiquitylation
and down-regulation of activated receptor tyrosine kinases.