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see mammary glandmammary gland,
organ of the female mammal that produces and secretes milk for the nourishment of the young. A mammal may have from 1 to 11 pairs of mammary glands, depending on the species. Generally, those mammals that bear larger litters have more glands.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the mammary glands of agricultural animals. In ruminants and mares the udder is located in the inguinal region, between the thighs. In swine udders are symmetrically placed right and left of the white line on the belly. The udder of the cow, camel, and reindeer consists of two fore, or belly, parts and two rear, or hip, parts. Milk is synthesized in the secreting epithelium of tiny sacs called alveoli. Each cell synthesizes milk with each of its constituent parts. Alveoli, the largest of which include up to 100 epithelium cells each, are placed radially around the milk ducts. These ducts unite to form larger ones and open into milk cisterns. Milk is retained in the udder because of capillary action, as well as the presence of circular closing muscles (sphincters) in the teats. The udder is well supplied with blood, because 500 liters of blood must pass through the udder in order to make 1 kg of milk.

In heifers the glandular tissues of the udder begin to grow with the onset of sexual maturity and develop very intensely not long before calving. (In pregnant cows this is in the second half of the dry period, a month before calving.) In dairy cows the udder is goblet-shaped and set forward. It is firmly attached to the body (not hanging), and its parts are even and symmetrically placed. This kind of udder is soft, pliant, and elastic to the touch; after milking it becomes smaller and has long, twisted, clearly visible veins. The udders of sheep, goats, and mares each consist of two complexes of glands and two teats.


Zaks, M. G. Molochnaia zheleza. Moscow-Leningrad, 1964. Chapter 1. [5_1570_1]
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


(vertebrate zoology)
A pendulous organ consisting of several mammary glands enclosed in a single envelope; each gland has its own nipple; found in some mammals, such as the cow and goat.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


the large baglike mammary gland of cows, sheep, etc., having two or more teats
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The traits that had an ideal score of nine points presented the greatest difference from ideal scores as defined by the ABCBRH, especially posterior udder width that had a difference of more than three points.
Vets working for the major three-day agricultural show, which attracts entries from all over Britain, were using ultrasound to scan the udders of prize-winning cows as a matter of routine and reported their suspicions.
She had a magnificently proportioned udder, shapely legs and a nice trenchback
So-called 'udder tampering' has apparently plagued the highly competitive agricultural show circuit for years.
Our large-boned Nubian/LaMancha cross has a lopsided udder and a propensity for drying up after milking for only four months.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the genetic and phenotypic relationship between milk production traits and udder health traits, estimation of genetic parameters for these traits and estimation of the economic milk losses due to bad udder health traits in Friesian cattle raised in a governmental farm in Egypt.
Therefore, in this study we assess the performances of Bedouin goat during early lactation focusing on the relationship between milk yield and body and udder morphology to determine the most appropriate traits to introduce into breed improvement scheme.
Keywords: Probiotics; Antagonistic properties; Sanitization of udder; Microbial load of the udder teats skin; Milk quality; Somatic cells
The machine senses which cow it is because of the chip, lets it in and uses a sensor system to put each sucker on each udder.
Udder conformations with big or extremely positioned teats and droopy udders were linked to an increase in teat lesions, udder lumps, acute mastitis or slower growing lambs.
The cows at (LESJ) were taller at spine wider at chest with deeper body possessing deeper udders than cows at (LESB) and (LESK).