Gregory XIII

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Related to Ugo Buoncompagni: Pope Pius V

Gregory XIII,

1502–85, pope (1572–85), an Italian named Ugo Buoncompagni, b. Bologna; successor of St. Pius VPius V, Saint,
1504–72, pope (1566–72), an Italian named Michele Ghislieri, b. near Alessandria; successor of Pius IV. He was ordained in the Dominicans (1528) and became celebrated for his austerity.
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. He is best known for his work on the calendarcalendar
[Lat., from Kalends], system of reckoning time for the practical purpose of recording past events and calculating dates for future plans. The calendar is based on noting ordinary and easily observable natural events, the cycle of the sun through the seasons with equinox
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, and the reformed calendar, the Gregorian, is named for him. He was prominent at the Council of Trent (1545, 1559–63; see Trent, Council ofTrent, Council of,
1545–47, 1551–52, 1562–63, 19th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church, convoked to meet the crisis of the Protestant Reformation.
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) and in the work of reform thereafter. He was created (1564) cardinal and later was legate to Spain. As pope, Gregory's absorbing interests were the education of the clergy and the conversion of Protestants. He especially patronized the Jesuits, whom he encouraged on their many missions, particularly in N Europe and in Japan. He proposed the deposition of Queen Elizabeth of England, and he advocated no compromise with German Protestants. He has been much criticized for a public thanksgiving at Rome for the massacre of Saint Bartholomew's DaySaint Bartholomew's Day, massacre of,
murder of French Protestants, or Huguenots, that began in Paris on Aug. 24, 1572. It was preceded, on Aug. 22, by an attempt, ordered by Catherine de' Medici, on the life of the Huguenot leader Admiral Coligny.
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, but he had been told that it was the suppression of a rebellion. He issued a new edition of the canon law. He was succeeded by Sixtus VSixtus V,
1521–90, pope (1585–90), an Italian (b. near Montalto) named Felice Peretti; successor of Gregory XIII. He entered the Franciscan order in early youth.
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.

Gregory XIII

1502--85, pope (1572--85). He promoted the Counter-Reformation and founded seminaries. His reformed (Gregorian) calendar was issued in 1582