the Russian name of several nematode species of the order Rhabditida. Two species are well known: Strongyloides stercoralis and Turbatrix aceti.
Strongyloides stercoralis, a dangerous parasite of man, is the vector of strongyloidiasis. A succession of free-living and parasitic generations is characteristic of this nematode. The males and females of the free-living generations measure approximately 2 mm in length and inhabit the soil. When living conditions deteriorate, peculiar fllariform larvae appear. These larvae are capable of penetrating human skin and flowing through the bloodstream to the lungs, where they disrupt the walls of the alveoli and develop as males or females. Fertilized females, which measure approximately 2.2 mm in length, pass through the trachea and pharynx and enter the intestine. The larvae, hatched from eggs deposited in the intestinal mucous membrane, reach the soil with the feces of an afflicted person. The worm can bypass the free-living stage. The worm is common in Asia, Africa, South America, and Europe. The maintenance of good sanitary conditions during the excavation of trenches, pits, and tunnels is an important preventive measure.
Turbatrix aceti is a small worm, measuring up to 4 mm in length, that is found in fermenting wine vinegar and feeds on bacteria.
REFERENCESPavlovskii, E. N. Rukovodstvo po parazitologii cheloveka, 5th éd., vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1946.
Zhizn’ zhivotnykh, vol. 1. Moscow, 1968.
A. V. IVANOV