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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(New-Uighur), the language of the Uighurs, spoken in the Sinkiang-Uighur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China by 5.5 million people (1975, estimate). Uighur is also spoken in certain regions of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India and in the Kazakh, Uzbek, Kirghiz, and Turkmen SSR’s by more than 150,000 people (1970 census). Uighur belongs to the southeastern (Middle Asian, or Karluk) group of Turkic languages.

Uighur comprises three dialects: the northwestern or central dialect, the eastern, or Lop Nor dialect, and the southern, or Hat’-ang dialect. The northwestern dialect includes ten subdialects, of which the Hi subdialect forms the basis for the modern Uighur literary language. The characteristic phonetic features of Uighur include ten vowels and 26 consonants, including ж[d3], K [q], H [B], and h. Synharmony is inconsistent. The language shares morphological features with the other Turkic languages.

The literary language of the Uighurs in the USSR is a unified national language. In the USSR, the writing system was based on Arabic script until 1930; in Sinkiang this script is still in use. The Latin alphabet was used in the USSR from 1930 to 1946, when the Cyrillic alphabet was introduced, with additional symbols for special phonemes.

The term “Uighur” was adopted for this language in 1921 at the suggestion of S. E. Malov, although Uighur is not a linguistic continuation of the Old Uighur language.


Kaidarov, A. T. “Uigurskii (novouigurskii) iazyk.” In lazyki narodov SSSR, vol. 2. Moscow, 1966. (Contains bibliography.)
Uigursko-russkiislovar’. Alma-Ata, 1961.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
De acuerdo al censo de poblacion de China de 2010, la poblacion total de Xinjiang ascendia a 23 813 300 habitantes, de los cuales 46.42 por ciento pertenecia al grupo etnico uigur, 38.99 por ciento al grupo han, 7.02 por ciento al grupo kazajo y 4.5 por ciento al grupo hui (poblacion sinofona de religion musulmana), ademas de otros grupos minoritarios, como los rusos y los mongoles.
As well as Kitan pottery, the ceramic assemblage included fragments of vessels of the earlier Uigur period, evidence of an earlier population in this area.
And from Kashgar with its streetside mosques, painted pillars, potted flowers, and Uigur skullcaps to Bukhara with its teahouses and blue turbans.
He also has made several forays into East Turkestan (Sinkiang) to present a rare picture of the eleven million Uigur Turks who, oppressed and pressured by the Chinese government for seeking independence, are being turned into a minority by Chinese settlers.
Both cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) (1) are endemic in the northwest part of China; high prevalences have been reported in several provinces (1), including Gansu (2,3) and the Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region (4).
Also, Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uigur, Yi, Tujia, Tong, Tibetan, Mongol, etcetera.
The ''International Bazar'' in the capital of the Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region is a huge three-story shopping mall.
Aside from conventional benefits of specialization, an additional motive for Beijing to pay attention to Xinjiang is Chinese sensitivity to Uigur rebelliousness (Economist, 1997, 2002).
"President Karimov is going to Washington," I tell the class of third-year students who are of Uzbek, Russian, Uigur and other assorted nationalities.
Knristenko also said he discussed the role of Gazprom in another major Chinese project, the East-West gas pipeline stretching from the Xinjiang Uigur autonomous region in western China to the Shanghai area.