Ukrainian Cossacks

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Ukrainian Cossacks

 

(also Little Russian Cossacks), the collective name of the cossacks in the Ukraine, including on the one hand the free cossacks (who arose in the second half of the 15th century in the southern Kiev area and in eastern Podolia) and the cossacks of the Zaporozh’e Sech’ (Lower Zaporozh’e Host) and on the other hand the registered cossacks (originally a unit of the Polish Army).

The cossacks of the Left-bank Ukraine, or Hetmanate, after its unification with Russia in 1654, were officially called Little Russian Cossacks. The Hetmanate was divided into ten “regiments” (polki): the Kiev, Chernigov, Starodub, Nezhin, Pereiaslav, Pri-luki, Lubny, Mirgorod, Poltava, and Gadiach regiments. The regiments were divided into sotni (“hundreds”), and the sotni into cossack gromady (communes).

In 1654 the Russian government by means of special gramoty (documents) limited the number of Little Russian Cossacks to 60,000 and recognized their personal freedom and right to land-ownership. Their main duty was military service, which had to be performed without compensation. At first it proved impossible to limit the number of Little Russian Cossacks to 60,000 because many peasants and meshchane (petty tradesmen and craftsmen) considered themselves cossacks and the government was afraid to provoke their discontent by depriving them of this title. The number of Little Russian Cossacks subsequently declined, however, because with the growth of feudal landownership some peasants and cossacks became feudally dependent on the starshina (higher cossack officials) and the monasteries. By the late 17th century it had become difficult to transfer from peasant to cossack status.

The oppressive burden of military service, the seizure of cossack lands by the starshina, and the tsarist policy of national oppression provided the basis for the class struggle of the Little Russian Cossacks. Under Hetmán D. P. Apóstol (1727–34) the number of Little Russian Cossacks was reduced to 10,000 “elect cossacks.” The remaining cossacks were classified as “helpers.” They were obligated to support the elect cossacks’ military service with material assistance.

In 1783, with the abolition of the autonomy of the Ukraine, the category of Little Russian Cossacks was also abolished, and the cossacks themselves became a special category of the podatnoesoslovie (poll-tax-paying estate); their status was similar to that of the state peasants.

V. A. GOLOBUTSKII

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
probably at any stall selling chocolate!" Other highlights announced for this year's Country fair include The Ukrainian Cossacks, the UK's leading motorcycle display team, the Bolddog Lings and the Poppy Parachute Team.
Ukrainian Cossacks entertain the crowds at the Royal Welsh Show 2016
The latest installment of the third edition of the Encyclopedia contains entries such as the Alexandria school of philosophy and medicine, Ottoman poet and administrator Tacizade Cafter Ielebi, cartography, Chaldean Christians, the Chyhyryn campaign against Ukrainian Cossacks, the Egyptian Sufi order Faydiyya, Lebanese poet and journalist Unse al-Hajj (1937-2014), qazel love poems in Azerbaijani literature, pre-Islamic Arabian prophet Hanzala b.
Also wowing the main ring crowds will be remarkable displays of horsemanship by the Ukrainian Cossacks team.
Viktor Brekhunenko's recent book on Ukrainian Cossacks commences exactly where Kohut's interpretation ends.
He related an incident which supposedly happened sometime before the Battle of Poltava: Mazepa, "a courageous, enterprising man, tirelessly industrious although advanced in years," was dining in Moscow with Peter and the latter told him that the Ukrainian Cossacks should be disciplined and made more dependent upon Moscow.
It was given to Ukrainian Cossacks by Catherine the Great to get them to stop raiding the shipping on the Dnieper.
Catch the many displays by members of HM Forces and other groups, such as the Bolddog Lings Motorcycle Display Team, Jean Francois Pignon and his performing horses, John Parker Carriage Driving and, hopefully, a team of Ukrainian Cossacks. For programme information log on to www.rwas.co.uk
Sysyn believes that the Orthodox issue also played a major role in the Ukrainian Cossacks' swearing of allegiance to the Muscovy tsar in the aftermath of the revolt and in the subsequent redefining of the Ukrainian (or Ruthenian) identity as part of an Orthodox East Slavic people.
Translated, this term means the Kobzar's Sich; a Sich is a settlement of Ukrainian cossacks on the banks and rivers of the lower Dnipro.

Full browser ?