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Ulan Bator

(both: o͞olän` bä`tôr) [Mongolian,=red hero], Chinese Kulun, city (2010 est. pop. 1,500,000), capital of the Republic of Mongolia, E central Mongolia, on the Tola River. It is situated at the foot of the Bogdo Khan Uul, which rises 3,000 ft (914 m) above the city. It is the political, cultural, economic, and transportation center of the country. Manufactures include woolen textiles and related goods, leather and footwear, soap, paper, iron castings, cement, glassware, beer and spirits, and processed foods. Coal mined nearby provides power.

Ulaanbaatar, which has an international airport, is the junction point of the country's major roads and caravan routes and lies on the Trans-Siberian RR, which links (since 1955) Russia with Beijing. The National Univ. of Mongolia (founded 1942) is the country's oldest university. In the center of the city is the Sühbaatar Square (with an equestrian statue of the Mongolian revolutionary leader for whom the city is named).

Founded in 1649 as a monastery town, Ulaanbaatar still preserves the monastery section, the former center of the city, and the residence of the Living Buddha, once Mongolia's spiritual leader. In the 1860s the town prospered as a commercial center on the tea route between Russia and China. There in 1911 autonomous Mongolia was first proclaimed. During the Russian civil war the city was (1921) the headquarters of the White army of Baron von Ungern-Sternberg. It was made capital of the Mongolian republic in 1924, when its name was changed from Urga [palace] to Ulaanbaatar. The city was developed with aid from the Soviet government, and the first industrial combine was established there in 1934. In the early 21st cent. the city experienced enormous population growth as former rural residents moved there.

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References in periodicals archive ?
Pollution levels in Ulaanbaatar had become worse than that in cities such as Beijing and New Delhi, UNICEF and the public health agency said in their report, released on Thursday.
"Azza lived in the village school dormitory and had nothing so, when I got back to Ulaanbaatar, I bought the ingredients to make some cupcakes, got my grade 12 students to bake them and we sold them to raise money to buy winter clothes for Azza.
He was addressing retreat session of the 11th ASEM Summit in Ulaanbaatar, in which a wide range of regional and international issues were discussed by the leaders from Asia and Europe.
He also referred to the cultural commonalities and age-old relations between the two countries, and voiced Tehran's preparedness to further develop cooperation with Ulaanbaatar in cultural and scientific fields.
Prime Minister of Japan Shinzo Abe paid a short visit to Ulaanbaatar yesterday with his wife, Akie Abe, upon the invitation of President of Mongolia Ts.Elbegdorj, as part of a tour of five Central Asian countries to boost economic ties with Japan.
The new Ulaanbaatar Airport will initially have six departure gates but its design envisages an expansion to 20 gates, potentially serving 20 million passengers annually from 2024.
Prior to joining Ramada Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia, he worked at resorts and hotels in the South Pacific, Africa, Asia and East Europe.
Capital City Governor's Office and the World Bank said it has organized representatives from municipality, districts and government ministries, as well as CSOs and development organizations to participate in a roundtable discussion on improving sanitation in Ulaanbaatar city's ger areas.
Genghis Khan and the equestrian statue, the largest in the world, near Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Having finally reached their destination yesterday, the friends wrote: "The little Micra carried us all the way from Wales to Ulaanbaatar.
Richard has been living for nearly a year now in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia.