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northernmost of the historic provinces of Ireland. Modern Ulster consists of nine counties. Six (Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Derry, and Tyrone) now make up Northern Ireland (see Ireland, NorthernIreland, Northern,
division of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (2011 pop. 1,810,863), 5,462 sq mi (14,147 sq km), NE Ireland. Made up of six of the nine counties of the historic province of Ulster in NE Ireland, it is frequently called Ulster.
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), which is often referred to as Ulster; the remaining three (Cavan, Donegal, and Monaghan) are in the Republic of Ireland.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a province of the Irish Republic, on the Atlantic coast. Population, 206,900 (1971). Ulster is part of the historic region of Ulster and comprises the counties of Donegal, Cavan, and Monaghan. It is 8,000 sq km in area. Ulster is an agrarian region of predominantly small landholdings with a sizable number of prosperous farmers. Farmers are mainly engaged in commercial dairy husbandry. Sheep are raised in mountain pastures. Barley, oats, flax, and fodder crops are grown. Industry is small, represented by textile, knitwear, and garment enterprises. Fishing and tourism are also important.



(1) A historic region in northern Ireland. Ulster was an independent kingdom in the early Middle Ages. After the invasion of Ireland by Anglo-Norman feudal lords (1169–71), Ulster was formally declared subject to the English crown but was in fact obedient to clan chiefs. When the English extended their rule over the entire island in the 16th century, Ulster became one of four provinces of Ireland. It was a hotbed of anticolonialist uprisings in the 16th to 18th centuries.

As capitalism progressed, Ulster proved to be more developed industrially than the rest of Ireland, with a particularly strong shipbuilding industry, which was located in Belfast, the principal city of Ulster. On the eve of World War I (1914–18), British Conservatives, taking advantage of national and religious antagonisms between Catholics and Protestants, turned Ulster into a bulwark for the struggle against Irish autonomy, or Home Rule, and the base of the separatist movement of the Unionists, who wished to preserve the Anglo-Irish union established in 1801. According to the Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921, the greater part of Ulster (the six counties of Antrim, Armagh, Down, Londonderry, Tyrone, and Fermanagh) remained subject to Great Britain (Northern Ireland), and the counties of Donegal, Monaghan, and Cavan formed the provice of Ulster in the Irish Free State (since 1949 the Irish Republic).

(2) The press someties applies the name “Ulster” to the six counties of Ireland included in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In the late 1960’s and early 1970’s, amid reprisals by the army and police and terrorist actions by right-wing extremist elements, a broad democratic movement in defense of the civil rights of the Catholic minority became widespread in these counties. In 1969 the British government sent regular troops to Northern Ireland under the pretext of preserving order, and in 1972 it established direct rule of Northern Ireland from London. In accordance with the establishment of direct rule, the Parliament and government of Northern Ireland were dissolved, and the British secretary of state for Northern Ireland was given unlimited powers. Participants in the civil rights movement have been cruelly suppressed.


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The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. a province and former kingdom of N Ireland: passed to the English Crown in 1461; confiscated land given to English and Scottish Protestant settlers in the 17th century, giving rise to serious long-term conflict; partitioned in 1921, six counties forming Northern Ireland and three counties joining the Republic of Ireland. Pop. (three Ulster counties of the Republic of Ireland): 46 714 (2002); (six Ulster counties of Northern Ireland): 1 702 628 (2003 est.). Area (Republic of Ireland): 8013 sq. km (3094 sq. miles); (Northern Ireland): 14 121 sq. km (5452 sq. miles)
2. an informal name for Northern Ireland
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