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Related to Ultra-montanism: Gallicanism


(ŭl'trəmŏn`tənĭzəm) [Lat.,=beyond the mountains, i.e., the Alps], formerly, point of view of Roman Catholics who supported the pope as supreme head of the church, as distinct from those who professed GallicanismGallicanism
, in French Roman Catholicism, tradition of resistance to papal authority. It was in opposition to ultramontanism, the view that accorded the papacy complete authority over the universal church.
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 or other tendencies opposing the papal jurisdiction. The term was used principally in France by Gallicans, especially before the French Revolution, but it was revived in 19th-century Germany by the group that left the church as Old CatholicsOld Catholics,
Christian denomination established by German Catholics who separated themselves from the Roman Catholic Church when they rejected (1870) the decrees of the First Vatican Council, especially the dogma of the infallibility of the pope.
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 after the First Vatican CouncilVatican Council, First,
1869–70, the 20th ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church (see council, ecumenical), renowned chiefly for its enunciation of the doctrine of papal infallibility.
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. The term is now obsolete, since all those in communion with the pope accept his supremacy. See papacypapacy
, office of the pope, head of the Roman Catholic Church. He is pope by reason of being bishop of Rome and thus, according to Roman Catholic belief, successor in the see of Rome (the Holy See) to its first bishop, St. Peter.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a religious and political trend in Catholicism. Adherents of ultramontanism maintain that the pope has supreme power in ecclesiastical matters and the right to intervene in the secular affairs of any state. First enunciated as a doctrine at the Council of Constance (1414-18), ultramontanism was firmly supported by the Jesuits in the 16th century. In the first half of the 19th century, it was advocated by members of reactionary aristocratic circles, for example, J. M. de Maistre, who saw a centralized church headed by the pope as an effective weapon against revolution. The ideas of ultramontanism were embodied in the Syllabus of Errors (1864) and in the resolutions of the First Vatican Council (1869-70). During the age of imperialism, ultramontanism was adapted to new historical circumstances, and it became the banner of clerical forces opposed to the labor movement and to socialism.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.