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a grouping of tribes that were subordinate to the noions (secular feudal lords in Mongolia) and that roamed the noion lands during the formation of the Mongolian state in the early 13th century. Strictly speaking, the term ulus refers to the Mongolian state of Genghis Khan; in a broader sense, it refers to the appanages of Genghis and his descendants, which in the late 13th century became independent states (khanates). During the period when land was divided between many feudal lords (from the 15th to the late 17th century), the term was applied to any important feudal domain. After Mongolia was conquered by the Man-churians, who divided the territory into administrative units called aimaki and khoshuny, it came to mean “the people.” It is currently used to mean “the state.” Prior to the October Revolution of 1917, among the Buriat, Kalmyk and other peoples ulus had several meanings, including a feudal domain, an administrative unit, a tribe, and a generation.