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Ulyanovsk(o͞olyä`nəfsk), city (1989 pop. 625,000), capital of Ulyanovsk region, W central European Russia, a port on the Volga and Svigaya rivers. It is a major rail and water transport center and trades in grain, wool, and potash. Industries include food processing, vodka distilling, and the manufacture of motor vehicles, machine tools, and metal and milling equipment. Ulyanovsk was founded in 1648 on the site of a Tatar village as a strongpoint to defend Russia's southern frontier. It also developed as a trade center. It was taken by the Cossack leader Stenka Razin in 1670, was the scene of fighting during the Pugachev insurrection of 1773–74, and was virtually destroyed by fire in 1864. The city was the birthplace of V. I. LeninLenin, Vladimir Ilyich
, 1870–1924, Russian revolutionary, the founder of Bolshevism and the major force behind the Revolution of Oct., 1917. Early Life
..... Click the link for more information. , the founder of Soviet Russia, as well as of such famous figures as A. F. KerenskyKerensky, Aleksandr Feodorovich
, 1881–1970, Russian revolutionary. A lawyer, he was elected to the fourth duma in 1912 as a representative of the moderate Labor party.
..... Click the link for more information. , the head of the 1917 provisional Russian government; the novelist I. A. GoncharovGoncharov, Ivan Aleksandrovich
, 1812–91, Russian novelist. Goncharov was a government official from 1835 to 1867. His realistic and satirical novel Oblomov (1858, tr. 1929, 2010) is a portrayal of the indolent nobleman common in Russia c.1860.
..... Click the link for more information. ; and the historian and writer N. M. KaramzinKaramzin, Nikolai Mikhailovich
, 1766–1826, Russian historian and writer. His Letters of a Russian Traveler, 1789–90 (1792, abr. tr. 1957), dealing with a journey to Western Europe, brought a cosmopolitan awareness into Russian writing.
..... Click the link for more information. . The house where Lenin was born and the school that he attended became national shrines of the Soviet Union. The city, formerly called Simbirsk, was renamed in 1924 in honor of Lenin (whose original name was Vladimir I. Ulyanov).